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  • Author or Editor: Lennart Krook x
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SUMMARY

The feasibility of renal arterial infusion of nonbiodegradable microspheres as a model of chronic renal disease in dogs was evaluated. Resin-coated, styrene-divinyl benzene copolymer microspheres were infused into the kidneys of healthy adult Beagles by direct injections of both renal arteries in a single surgical procedure. Injections of 25-μm diameter microspheres had minimal effect on either the clinical status or serum values of the dogs. Histologic examination revealed the majority of the microspheres lodged within the capillary beds of the glomeruli, and little change to the kidneys. However, injections of 50-μm diameter microspheres caused significant increases in serum concentrations of urea nitrogen and creatinine. Histologically, the larger microspheres obstructed afferent arterioles and small arteries, which caused diffuse glomerular necrosis and nephron damage.

With doses ranging from 1 to 3 million microspheres/dog, a correlation between the quantity of microspheres injected and severity of renal damage was observed. The optimal dose for producing a model of moderate renal disease was determined to be 1.8 million microspheres/dog (0.9 million microspheres/kidney).

During long-term studies, microsphere-injected dogs fed a moderately restricted protein ration remained relatively azotemic, compared with control dogs on the identical ration. During the 5-month postsurgical period, the serum urea nitrogen concentration averaged 18.41 ± 1.59 mg/dl (mean ± SE) for the microsphere-injected dogs vs 9.31 ± 0.38 for the control dogs (P < 0.001). Similarly, the mean serum creatinine value was significantly higher (P = 0.020) for the microsphere-injected dogs, compared with the controls (1.28 ± 0.12 mg/dl vs 0.94 ± 0.03). In addition, the difference in mean endogenous creatinine clearance rates was statistically significant (microsphere-injected 1.02 ± 0.05 ml/min/kg, vs control 1.53 ± 0.06, P < 0.001).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Sodium hyaluronate reduces adhesions after tendon repair in rodents and dogs, and has been used in limited clinical trials in people. To evaluate its effect on tendon healing and adhesion formation in horses and to compare these effects with those of a compound of similar viscoelastic properties, a study was performed in horses, using a model of collagenase injection in the flexor tendons within the digital sheath.

Eight clinically normal horses were randomly allotted to 2 groups. Adhesion formation between the deep digital flexor tendon and the tendon sheath at the pastern region was induced in the forelimbs of all horses. Using tenoscopic control, a 20-gauge needle was inserted into the deep digital flexor tendon of horses under general anesthesia and 0.2 ml of collagenase (2.5 mg/ml) was injected. The procedure was repeated proximally at 2 other sites, spaced 1.5 cm apart. A biopsy forceps was introduced, and a 5-mm tendon defect was created at each injection site. Group-A horses had 120 mg of sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) gel injected into the tendon sheath of one limb. Group-B horses had methylcellulose gel injected at the same sites. The contralateral limbs of horses in both groups served as surgical, but noninjected, controls. Horses were euthanatized after 8 weeks of stall rest.

Ultrasonographic evaluation revealed improved tendon healing after NaHa injection, but no difference in peritendinous adhesion formation. Tendon sheath fluid volume and hyaluronic acid (ha) content were greater in NaHA-treated limbs. Gross pathologic examination revealed considerably fewer and smaller adhesions when limbs were treated with NaHA. However, significant difference in pull-out strengths was not evident between NaHA-treated and control limbs. Histologically, the deep digital flexor tendon from the NaHA-treated limbs had reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, improved tendon structure, and less intratendinous hemorrhage. Treatmerit with methylcullulose had no significant effect on tendon healing, adhesion size, quantity, or strength or on the volume and composition of the tendon sheath fluid. Sodium hyaluronate, administered intrathecally, appears to have a pharmaceutically beneficial action in this collagenase-induced tendinitis and adhesion model in horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research