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  • Author or Editor: Lawrence T. Glickman x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine the accuracy and precision of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) for measuring bone mineral density in horses in situ.

Sample Population—12 randomly selected forelimbs from 12 horses.

Procedure—Metacarpi were scanned in 2 planes and DEXA measurements obtained for 6 regions of interest (ROI). Each ROI was isolated and bone density measured by Archimedes' principle. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the correlation between the 2 measurements at each ROI. An additional metacarpus was measured 10 times to determine the coefficient of variation for both techniques.

Results—Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and bone density were significantly associated at multiple ROI. The addition of age, weight, and soft tissue or bone thickness improved these associations. Repeated measurements had a low coefficient of variation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry can be used to accurately and precisely measure the bone density in the equine metacarpus. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry appears suitable for serial in vivo measurement of bone density of the equine metacarpus. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry may be used for studies to evaluate the effects of diet or drugs on bone density or density changes from bone remodeling that develop prior to stress fractures. ( Am J Vet Res 2001; 62:752–756)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To test the hypothesis that increased severity of periodontal disease in dogs is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular-related events, such as endocarditis and cardiomyopathy, as well as markers of inflammation.

Design—Historical cohort observational study.

Sample Population—59,296 dogs with a history of periodontal disease (periodontal cohort), of which 23,043 had stage 1 disease, 20,732 had stage 2 disease, and 15,521 had stage 3 disease; and an age-matched comparison group of 59,296 dogs with no history of periodontal disease (nonperiodontal cohort).

Procedures—Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the risk of cardiovascular-related diagnoses and examination findings in dogs as a function of the stage of periodontal disease (1, 2, or 3 or no periodontal disease) over time while controlling for the effect of potential confounding factors.

Results—Significant associations were detected between the severity of periodontal disease and the subsequent risk of cardiovascular-related conditions, such as endocarditis and cardiomyopathy, but not between the severity of periodontal disease and the risk of a variety of other common noncardiovascular-related conditions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The findings of this observational study, similar to epidemiologic studies in humans, suggested that periodontal disease was associated with cardiovascular-related conditions, such as endocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Chronic inflammation is probably an important mechanism connecting bacterial flora in the oral cavity of dogs with systemic disease. Canine health may be improved if veterinarians and pet owners place a higher priority on routine dental care.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether administration of glucocorticoids provides additional benefits to environmental management of horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO).

Animals—28 horses with RAO.

Procedure—Horses were classified as having mild, moderate, or severe RAO. Within each category, horses were randomly assigned to receive inhaled fluticasone propionate, inhaled control substance, or oral administration of prednisone. During the 4- week study, horses were maintained outdoors and fed a pelleted feed. Clinical scores, pulmonary function, results of cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and adrenal gland function were determined before and 2 and 4 weeks after initiation of treatment.

Results—Clinical score and pulmonary function of all RAO-affected horses improved during the treatment period. After 4 weeks, clinical scores and pulmonary function of horses treated with a glucocorticoid were not different from those for the control treatment. In horses with severe RAO, treatment with fluticasone for 2 weeks resulted in significantly greater improvement in pulmonary function, compared with pulmonary function after treatment with prednisone or the control substance. Treatment with a glucocorticoid for 4 weeks and a low-dust environment did not have any effect on cellular content of BALF. Treatment with prednisone for 2 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in serum cortisol concentration, compared with concentrations after administration of fluticasone or the control substance.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Environmental management is the most important factor in the treatment of horses with RAO. Early treatment with inhaled fluticasone can help accelerate recovery of horses with severe RAO. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1665–1674)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare incidence of and breed-related risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) among 11 dog breeds (Akita, Bloodhound, Collie, Great Dane, Irish Setter, Irish Wolfhound, Newfoundland, Rottweiler, Saint Bernard, Standard Poodle, and Weimaraner).

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—1,914 dogs.

Procedure—Owners of dogs that did not have a history of GDV were recruited at dog shows, and the dog's length and height and depth and width of the thorax and abdomen were measured. Information concerning the dogs' medical history, genetic background, personality, and diet was obtained from owners, and owners were contacted by mail and telephone at approximately 1-year intervals to determine whether dogs had developed GDV or died. Incidence of GDV based on the number of dog-years at risk was calculated for each breed, and breed-related risk factors were identified.

Results and Clinical Relevance—Incidence of GDV for the 7 large (23 to 45 kg [50 to 99 lb]) and 4 giant (> 45 kg [> 99 lb]) breeds was 23 and 26 cases/1,000 dogyears at risk, respectively. Of the 105 dogs that developed GDV, 30 (28.6%) died. Incidence of GDV increased with increasing age. Cumulative incidence of GDV was 5.7% for all breeds. The only breed-specific characteristic significantly associated with a decreased incidence of GDV was an owner-perceived personality trait of happiness. ( J Am Med Vet Assoc 2000;216: 40–45)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify non-dietary risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in large breed and giant breed dogs.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—1,637 dogs ≥ 6 months old of the following breeds: Akita, Bloodhound, Collie, Great Dane, Irish Setter, Irish Wolfhound, Newfoundland, Rottweiler, Saint Bernard, Standard Poodle, and Weimaraner.

Procedure—Owners of dogs that did not have a history of GDV were recruited at dog shows, and the dog's length and height and the depth and width of its thorax and abdomen were measured. Information concerning the dog's medical history, genetic background, personality, and diet was obtained from the owners, and owners were contacted by mail and telephone at approximately 1-year intervals to determine whether dogs had developed GDV or died. Incidence of GDV, calculated on the basis of dogyears at risk for dogs that were or were not exposed to potential risk factors, was used to calculate the relative risk of GDV.

Results and Clinical Relevance—Cumulative incidence of GDV during the study was 6% for large breed and giant breed dogs. Factors significantly associated with an increased risk of GDV were increasing age, having a first-degree relative with a history of GDV, having a faster speed of eating, and having a raised feeding bowl. Approximately 20 and 52% of cases of GDV among the large breed and giant breed dogs, respectively, were attributed to having a raised feed bowl. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1492–1499)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether routine vaccination induces antibodies against bovine thyroglobulin and autoantibodies against canine thyroglobulin in dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—20 healthy research Beagles and 16 healthy pet dogs.

Procedure—For the research Beagles, 5 dogs were vaccinated with a multivalent vaccine and a rabies vaccine, 5 dogs received only the multivalent vaccine, 5 dogs received only the rabies vaccine, and 5 dogs were unvaccinated controls. The multivalent vaccine was administered at 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 26, and 52 weeks of age and every 6 months thereafter. The rabies vaccine was administered at 16 and 52 weeks of age and then once per year. Blood was collected from all dogs at 8, 16, and 26 weeks of age and then 4 times yearly. Assays for antibodies directed against bovine and canine thyroglobulin were performed prior to and 2 weeks after each yearly vaccination. For the pet dogs, blood was collected prior to and 2 weeks after 1 vaccination.

Results—In the research Beagles, there was a significant increase in anti-bovine thyroglobulin antibodies in all vaccinated dogs, compared with control dogs. There was a significant increase in anti-canine thyroglobulin antibodies in the 2 groups of dogs that received the rabies vaccine but not in the group that received the multivalent vaccine alone. In the pet dogs, there was a significant increase in anti-canine thyroglobulin antibodies after vaccination but no significant change in anti-bovine thyroglobulin antibodies.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Recent vaccination may result in increased anti-canine thyroglobulin antibodies. Whether these antibodies have a deleterious effect on canine thyroid function is unknown. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:515–521)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether there was a temporal trend in prevalence of leptospirosis among dogs in the United States and Canada and to determine whether age, sex, and breed were risk factors for the disease.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—1,819,792 dogs examined at 22 veterinary teaching hospitals between 1970 and 1998.

Procedures—The Veterinary Medical Data Base was searched for records of dogs in which a diagnosis of leptospirosis was made, and hospital prevalence was calculated. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between leptospirosis and age, sex, and breed.

Results—677 dogs with leptospirosis were identified. Thus, hospital prevalence was 37 cases/100,000 dogs examined. A significant increase in leptospirosis prevalence between 1983 and 1998 was identified. Male dogs were at significantly greater risk of leptospirosis than were female dogs; dogs between 4 and 6.9 years old and between 7 and 10 years old were at significantly greater risk than dogs < 1 year old; and herding dogs, hounds, working dogs, and mixed-breed dogs were at significantly greater risk than companion dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The prevalence of leptospirosis among dogs examined at veterinary teaching hospitals in the United States and Canada has increased significantly since 1983. Male dogs of working and herding breeds were at greater risk. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:53–58)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the outcome and subsequent fertility of sheep and goats undergoing a cesarean section because of dystocia.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—85 sheep and 25 goats.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and information was obtained on signalment, history, physical examination findings, anesthesia protocol, surgical technique, number of lambs or kids delivered, pre- and postoperative treatments, duration of hospitalization, and postoperative complications. Follow-up information was obtained through telephone conversations with owners.

Results—The proportion of sheep admitted to the veterinary teaching hospital during the study period that underwent a cesarean section (4.4%) was significantly higher than the proportion of goats that did (2.2%). Pygmy goats were overrepresented, compared with the hospital population. The most common reason for cesarean section was inadequate dilatation of the cervix. The most common surgical approach was via the left paralumbar fossa. Two hundred one lambs and kids were delivered, of which 116 were dead at delivery or died shortly afterward. Forty-two of the 65 dams with 1 or more dead fetuses had been in stage-2 labor for > 6 hours, and fetal death was significantly associated with a prolonged duration of dystocia. The most common complication following surgery was retained placenta (n = 49). Use of antimicrobials was associated with a lower rate of complications. All 16 dams that were rebred became pregnant and had no problems with dystocia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that cesarean section is an effective method of resolving dystocia in sheep and goats and does not adversely affect subsequent fertility. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:275–279)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether use of topical flea and tick products increases the risk of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder in Scottish Terriers.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—87 adult Scottish Terriers with TCC (cases) and 83 adult Scottish Terriers with other health-related conditions (controls).

Procedure—Owners of study dogs were recruited through private veterinary practices and the Scottish Terrier Club of America. History of exposure to flea and tick products 1 year prior to diagnosis of TCC for case dogs and during a comparable period for control dogs was obtained through a questionnaire. Risk of TCC associated with exposure to flea and tick products was determined by means of univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis.

Results—After adjustment for host factors, Scottish Terriers treated with topical spot-on flea and tick products containing fipronil or imidacloprid did not have an increased risk of TCC, compared with Scottish Terriers that had never been exposed to any flea and tick products. The risk of TCC associated with use of older topical flea and tick products such as shampoos, dips, powders, sprays, and collars could not be evaluated because of the low number of owners in the study population that had used such products.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that use of topical spot-on flea and tick products does not increase the risk of TCC in Scottish Terriers. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:389–394)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association