Objective—To determine the accuracy and precision
of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) for measuring
bone mineral density in horses in situ.
Sample Population—12 randomly selected forelimbs
from 12 horses.
Procedure—Metacarpi were scanned in 2 planes and
DEXA measurements obtained for 6 regions of interest
(ROI). Each ROI was isolated and bone density
measured by Archimedes' principle. Linear regression
analysis was used to determine the correlation
between the 2 measurements at each ROI. An additional
metacarpus was measured 10 times to determine
the coefficient of variation for both techniques.
Results—Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and bone
density were significantly associated at multiple ROI.
The addition of age, weight, and soft tissue or bone
thickness improved these associations. Repeated
measurements had a low coefficient of variation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dual energy
x-ray absorptiometry can be used to accurately and
precisely measure the bone density in the equine
metacarpus. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry
appears suitable for serial in vivo measurement of
bone density of the equine metacarpus. Dual energy
x-ray absorptiometry may be used for studies to evaluate
the effects of diet or drugs on bone density or
density changes from bone remodeling that develop
prior to stress fractures. ( Am J Vet Res 2001;
Objective—To determine the outcome and subsequent
fertility of sheep and goats undergoing a
cesarean section because of dystocia.
Animals—85 sheep and 25 goats.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and information
was obtained on signalment, history, physical
examination findings, anesthesia protocol, surgical technique,
number of lambs or kids delivered, pre- and postoperative
treatments, duration of hospitalization, and
postoperative complications. Follow-up information was
obtained through telephone conversations with owners.
Results—The proportion of sheep admitted to the
veterinary teaching hospital during the study period
that underwent a cesarean section (4.4%) was significantly
higher than the proportion of goats that did
(2.2%). Pygmy goats were overrepresented, compared
with the hospital population. The most common
reason for cesarean section was inadequate dilatation
of the cervix. The most common surgical approach
was via the left paralumbar fossa. Two hundred one
lambs and kids were delivered, of which 116 were
dead at delivery or died shortly afterward. Forty-two
of the 65 dams with 1 or more dead fetuses had been
in stage-2 labor for > 6 hours, and fetal death was significantly
associated with a prolonged duration of dystocia.
The most common complication following
surgery was retained placenta (n = 49). Use of antimicrobials
was associated with a lower rate of complications.
All 16 dams that were rebred became pregnant
and had no problems with dystocia.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that cesarean section is an effective method of
resolving dystocia in sheep and goats and does not
adversely affect subsequent fertility. (J Am Vet Med
Objective—To determine whether there was a temporal
trend in prevalence of leptospirosis among dogs
in the United States and Canada and to determine
whether age, sex, and breed were risk factors for the
Animals—1,819,792 dogs examined at 22 veterinary
teaching hospitals between 1970 and 1998.
Procedures—The Veterinary Medical Data Base was
searched for records of dogs in which a diagnosis of
leptospirosis was made, and hospital prevalence was
calculated. Logistic regression was used to examine
the association between leptospirosis and age, sex,
Results—677 dogs with leptospirosis were identified.
Thus, hospital prevalence was 37 cases/100,000
dogs examined. A significant increase in leptospirosis
prevalence between 1983 and 1998 was identified.
Male dogs were at significantly greater risk of leptospirosis
than were female dogs; dogs between 4
and 6.9 years old and between 7 and 10 years old
were at significantly greater risk than dogs < 1 year
old; and herding dogs, hounds, working dogs, and
mixed-breed dogs were at significantly greater risk
than companion dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The prevalence
of leptospirosis among dogs examined at veterinary
teaching hospitals in the United States and
Canada has increased significantly since 1983. Male
dogs of working and herding breeds were at greater
risk. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:53–58)
Objective—To determine whether administration of
glucocorticoids provides additional benefits to environmental
management of horses with recurrent airway
Animals—28 horses with RAO.
Procedure—Horses were classified as having mild,
moderate, or severe RAO. Within each category,
horses were randomly assigned to receive inhaled
fluticasone propionate, inhaled control substance,
or oral administration of prednisone. During the 4-
week study, horses were maintained outdoors and
fed a pelleted feed. Clinical scores, pulmonary function,
results of cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar
lavage fluid (BALF), and adrenal gland
function were determined before and 2 and 4
weeks after initiation of treatment.
Results—Clinical score and pulmonary function of all
RAO-affected horses improved during the treatment
period. After 4 weeks, clinical scores and pulmonary
function of horses treated with a glucocorticoid were
not different from those for the control treatment. In
horses with severe RAO, treatment with fluticasone
for 2 weeks resulted in significantly greater improvement
in pulmonary function, compared with pulmonary
function after treatment with prednisone or
the control substance. Treatment with a glucocorticoid
for 4 weeks and a low-dust environment did not have
any effect on cellular content of BALF. Treatment with
prednisone for 2 weeks resulted in a significant
decrease in serum cortisol concentration, compared
with concentrations after administration of fluticasone
or the control substance.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Environmental
management is the most important factor in
the treatment of horses with RAO. Early treatment
with inhaled fluticasone can help accelerate recovery
of horses with severe RAO. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To identify non-dietary risk factors for
gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in large breed and
giant breed dogs.
Design—Prospective cohort study.
Animals—1,637 dogs ≥ 6 months old of the following
breeds: Akita, Bloodhound, Collie, Great Dane, Irish
Setter, Irish Wolfhound, Newfoundland, Rottweiler,
Saint Bernard, Standard Poodle, and Weimaraner.
Procedure—Owners of dogs that did not have a history
of GDV were recruited at dog shows, and the
dog's length and height and the depth and width of
its thorax and abdomen were measured. Information
concerning the dog's medical history, genetic background,
personality, and diet was obtained from the
owners, and owners were contacted by mail and
telephone at approximately 1-year intervals to determine
whether dogs had developed GDV or died.
Incidence of GDV, calculated on the basis of dogyears
at risk for dogs that were or were not exposed
to potential risk factors, was used to calculate the relative
risk of GDV.
Results and Clinical Relevance—Cumulative incidence
of GDV during the study was 6% for large
breed and giant breed dogs. Factors significantly
associated with an increased risk of GDV were
increasing age, having a first-degree relative with a
history of GDV, having a faster speed of eating, and
having a raised feeding bowl. Approximately 20 and
52% of cases of GDV among the large breed and
giant breed dogs, respectively, were attributed to
having a raised feed bowl. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To determine whether routine vaccination
induces antibodies against bovine thyroglobulin
and autoantibodies against canine thyroglobulin in
Animals—20 healthy research Beagles and 16 healthy
Procedure—For the research Beagles, 5 dogs were
vaccinated with a multivalent vaccine and a rabies
vaccine, 5 dogs received only the multivalent vaccine,
5 dogs received only the rabies vaccine, and 5 dogs
were unvaccinated controls. The multivalent vaccine
was administered at 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 26, and 52
weeks of age and every 6 months thereafter. The
rabies vaccine was administered at 16 and 52 weeks
of age and then once per year. Blood was collected
from all dogs at 8, 16, and 26 weeks of age and then
4 times yearly. Assays for antibodies directed against
bovine and canine thyroglobulin were performed prior
to and 2 weeks after each yearly vaccination. For the
pet dogs, blood was collected prior to and 2 weeks
after 1 vaccination.
Results—In the research Beagles, there was a significant
increase in anti-bovine thyroglobulin antibodies in
all vaccinated dogs, compared with control dogs.
There was a significant increase in anti-canine thyroglobulin
antibodies in the 2 groups of dogs that
received the rabies vaccine but not in the group that
received the multivalent vaccine alone. In the pet
dogs, there was a significant increase in anti-canine
thyroglobulin antibodies after vaccination but no significant
change in anti-bovine thyroglobulin antibodies.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Recent vaccination
may result in increased anti-canine thyroglobulin
antibodies. Whether these antibodies have a deleterious
effect on canine thyroid function is unknown.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:515–521)
Objective—To test the hypothesis that increased severity of periodontal disease in dogs is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular-related events, such as endocarditis and cardiomyopathy, as well as markers of inflammation.
Design—Historical cohort observational study.
Sample Population—59,296 dogs with a history of periodontal disease (periodontal cohort), of which 23,043 had stage 1 disease, 20,732 had stage 2 disease, and 15,521 had stage 3 disease; and an age-matched comparison group of 59,296 dogs with no history of periodontal disease (nonperiodontal cohort).
Procedures—Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the risk of cardiovascular-related diagnoses and examination findings in dogs as a function of the stage of periodontal disease (1, 2, or 3 or no periodontal disease) over time while controlling for the effect of potential confounding factors.
Results—Significant associations were detected between the severity of periodontal disease and the subsequent risk of cardiovascular-related conditions, such as endocarditis and cardiomyopathy, but not between the severity of periodontal disease and the risk of a variety of other common noncardiovascular-related conditions.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The findings of this observational study, similar to epidemiologic studies in humans, suggested that periodontal disease was associated with cardiovascular-related conditions, such as endocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Chronic inflammation is probably an important mechanism connecting bacterial flora in the oral cavity of dogs with systemic disease. Canine health may be improved if veterinarians and pet owners place a higher priority on routine dental care.
Objective—To determine the incidence of vaccine-associated adverse events (VAAEs) diagnosed within 30 days of vaccination in cats and characterize risk factors for their occurrence.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—496,189 cats vaccinated at 329 hospitals.
Procedures—Electronic records were searched for VAAEs that occurred after vaccine administration classified by practitioners as nonspecific vaccine reaction, allergic reaction, urticaria, shock, or anaphylaxis. Clinical signs and treatments were reviewed. The association between potential risk factors and a VAAE occurrence was estimated via multivariate logistic regression.
Results—2,560 VAAEs were associated with administration of 1,258,712 doses of vaccine to 496,189 cats (51.6 VAAEs/10,000 cats vaccinated). The risk of a VAAE significantly increased as the number of vaccines administered per office visit increased. Risk was greatest for cats approximately 1 year old; overall risk was greater for neutered versus sexually intact cats. Lethargy with or without fever was the most commonly diagnosed VAAE. No localized reactions recorded in the 30-day period were subsequently diagnosed as neoplasia when followed for 1 to 2 years.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although overall VAAE rates were low, young adult neutered cats that received multiple vaccines per office visit were at the greatest risk of a VAAE within 30 days after vaccination. Veterinarians should incorporate these findings into risk communications and limit the number of vaccinations administered concurrently to cats.
Objective—To compare incidence of and breed-related
risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV)
among 11 dog breeds (Akita, Bloodhound, Collie,
Great Dane, Irish Setter, Irish Wolfhound,
Newfoundland, Rottweiler, Saint Bernard, Standard
Poodle, and Weimaraner).
Design—Prospective cohort study.
Procedure—Owners of dogs that did not have a history
of GDV were recruited at dog shows, and the
dog's length and height and depth and width of the
thorax and abdomen were measured. Information
concerning the dogs' medical history, genetic background,
personality, and diet was obtained from owners,
and owners were contacted by mail and telephone
at approximately 1-year intervals to determine
whether dogs had developed GDV or died. Incidence
of GDV based on the number of dog-years at risk was
calculated for each breed, and breed-related risk factors
Results and Clinical Relevance—Incidence of GDV
for the 7 large (23 to 45 kg [50 to 99 lb]) and 4 giant (>
45 kg [> 99 lb]) breeds was 23 and 26 cases/1,000 dogyears
at risk, respectively. Of the 105 dogs that developed
GDV, 30 (28.6%) died. Incidence of GDV
increased with increasing age. Cumulative incidence of
GDV was 5.7% for all breeds. The only breed-specific
characteristic significantly associated with a decreased
incidence of GDV was an owner-perceived personality
trait of happiness. ( J Am Med Vet Assoc 2000;216: