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Sixteen Holstein cows were used to test the effect of postmilking teat treatment on colonization and intramammary infection by Staphylococcus aureus on chapped teats. Treatments were (1) chapping the teat and using 1% I2/10% glycerin postdip solution, (2) 1% I2/10% glycerin postdip solution on nonchapped teats, (3) chapping the teat and using 10% glycerin postdip solution, (4) chapping the teat and not using a postdip solution. All mammary glands were free of S aureus teat skin colonization and intramammary infection at the start of the study. Teats selected for chapping were dipped in 1N NaOH prior to 3 applications of S aureus broth culture; cultures were applied at 12-hour intervals on all teats. Treatments were applied after each milking for 30 days and were initiated after the second broth dip. Teat skin swab specimens and milk samples were collected before treatment application. Teat skin condition was scored daily. Nonchapped teats (treatment 2) did not support skin or orifice colonization by S aureus. Treatment-1 teats healed most rapidly and supported less colonization in skin and orifice than did treatment-3 and -4 teats. Teat skin scores and skin colonization were lower for treatment-3 than treatment-4 teats. A correlation between teat skin colonization and teat skin conditions was found. Two intramammary infections were found in treatment-4 quarters and 1 in a treatment-3 quarter. On the basis of our findings, we concluded that poor teat skin condition will more readily support S aureus colonization, that a dip of 1% I2 with glycerin helped reduce S aureus colonization and was associated with faster healing, and that glycerin in teat dips may be of value in preventing colonization by S aureus and in promoting healing.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the effects of administration of 1 dose of tulathromycin on the incidence of various diseases and growth, identify risk factors for slow growth, and determine the association of Mycoplasma bovis status with the incidence of otitis media in calves.

Design—Randomized controlled trial and cross-sectional study.

Animals—788 dairy heifer calves (median age, 3 days).

Procedures—Calves received tulathromycin or a saline (0.9% NaCl) solution control treatment once. Calves were observed daily for 8 weeks by farm staff to detect diseases. Nasal swab specimens were collected from some calves for Mycoplasma spp culture.

Results—Tulathromycin-treated calves had significantly lower odds of developing otitis media (OR, 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.58 to 0.82) versus control calves. Control calves had significantly higher odds of developing diarrhea (OR, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 2.6) versus tulathromycin-treated calves. Control calves and those with failure of passive transfer, fever, lameness, respiratory tract disease, or diarrhea had significantly lower average daily gain versus other calves. Seventeen of the 66 (26%) calves that underwent repeated testing had positive Mycoplasma spp culture results, but positive results were not associated with otitis media. One of 42 calves with otitis media tested for Mycoplasma spp had positive results, and 1 of 43 age-matched calves without otitis media had positive results.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tulathromycin-treated calves in this study had a lower incidence of diarrhea and otitis media versus control calves. Various diseases had negative effects on average daily gain. Mycoplasma bovis status was not associated with otitis media in calves.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate the elimination kinetics of chlorhexidine in milk when used as an intramammary infusion to stop lactation in cows.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—6 cows.

Procedure—The study was performed in 2 phases. Three cows were studied in each phase. All cows were treated with chlorhexidine suspension by infusion into a mastitic mammary gland quarter after 2 milkings 24 hours apart. Foremilk samples (100 mL) were collected from treated and untreated (controls) mammary gland quarters of each cow. Chlorhexidine was extracted from raw milk, and residue concentrations were quantified by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Foremilk samples from days 2, 5, and 8 were analyzed in phase I, and samples from time 0 and days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 were analyzed in phase II.

Results—In phases I and II, there was no quantifiable transference of chlorhexidine to milk in untreated mammary gland quarters. Measurable chlorhexidine residues were found in milk from treated mammary gland quarters of 2 cows throughout the 42-day sample period in phase II. Estimated mean elimination half-life for chlorhexidine in milk was 11.5 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of the long elimination half-life of chlorhexidine in milk from treated mammary gland quarters, the lack of human dietary exposure data to suggest a food tolerance for chlorhexidine in food products, and the Food and Drug Administration's published zero tolerance for chlorhexidine in uncooked edible calf tissues, we do not recommend extralabel use of chlorhexidine suspension as a treatment to stop lactation in mastitic mammary gland quarters of cows. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 222:1746–1749)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine prevalence and relevance of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus hyicus and S intermedius intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cows and determine the ability of the 4-hour tube coagulase (TC) test to differentiate the coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS).


Prevalence of CPS was determined for primiparous cows (point prevalence and prevalence at first parturition) and multiparous cows (point prevalence) of 2 herd groups: < 6% CPS IMI prevalence = low prevalence (LP); > 10% CPS IMI prevalence = high prevalence (HP).

Sample population

For prevalence, cows of 22 dairy herds. For TC, 1,038 CPS strains isolated from cow milk.


Speciation of CPS from aseptically collected composite milk samples was performed. Coagulase-positive isolates from 4 cow groups were tested for their ability to coagulate rabbit plasma by 4 hours: LP and HP primiparous cows at parturition, and LP and HP cows any time after first parturition.


Of 487 CPS in the prevalence study, 82.1% were S aureus, 17.7% were coagulase-positive S hyicus, and 0.2% were S intermedius. Of all CPS IMI in LP herds, 34% were coagulase-positive S hyicus; of all CPS IMI in HP herds, 9% were coagulase-positive S hyicus. Coagulase-positive S hyicus appeared to persist to the end of lactation in 4 cows (mean linear somatic cell count = 3.7). The TC test was ≥ 97% sensitive, ≤ 33% specific, and had a predictive value positive range of 60 to 97% for S aureus isolates.


Coagulase-positive S hyicus appears capable of inducing chronic, low-grade IMI. Staphylococcus intermedius does not appear to be an important mastitis pathogen. The TC test is not valid to use as the sole method to differentiate CPS species. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:54-58)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research