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Objective—To evaluate the elimination kinetics of chlorhexidine in milk when used as an intramammary infusion to stop lactation in cows.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—6 cows.

Procedure—The study was performed in 2 phases. Three cows were studied in each phase. All cows were treated with chlorhexidine suspension by infusion into a mastitic mammary gland quarter after 2 milkings 24 hours apart. Foremilk samples (100 mL) were collected from treated and untreated (controls) mammary gland quarters of each cow. Chlorhexidine was extracted from raw milk, and residue concentrations were quantified by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Foremilk samples from days 2, 5, and 8 were analyzed in phase I, and samples from time 0 and days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 were analyzed in phase II.

Results—In phases I and II, there was no quantifiable transference of chlorhexidine to milk in untreated mammary gland quarters. Measurable chlorhexidine residues were found in milk from treated mammary gland quarters of 2 cows throughout the 42-day sample period in phase II. Estimated mean elimination half-life for chlorhexidine in milk was 11.5 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of the long elimination half-life of chlorhexidine in milk from treated mammary gland quarters, the lack of human dietary exposure data to suggest a food tolerance for chlorhexidine in food products, and the Food and Drug Administration's published zero tolerance for chlorhexidine in uncooked edible calf tissues, we do not recommend extralabel use of chlorhexidine suspension as a treatment to stop lactation in mastitic mammary gland quarters of cows. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 222:1746–1749)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the effects of administration of 1 dose of tulathromycin on the incidence of various diseases and growth, identify risk factors for slow growth, and determine the association of Mycoplasma bovis status with the incidence of otitis media in calves.

Design—Randomized controlled trial and cross-sectional study.

Animals—788 dairy heifer calves (median age, 3 days).

Procedures—Calves received tulathromycin or a saline (0.9% NaCl) solution control treatment once. Calves were observed daily for 8 weeks by farm staff to detect diseases. Nasal swab specimens were collected from some calves for Mycoplasma spp culture.

Results—Tulathromycin-treated calves had significantly lower odds of developing otitis media (OR, 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.58 to 0.82) versus control calves. Control calves had significantly higher odds of developing diarrhea (OR, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 2.6) versus tulathromycin-treated calves. Control calves and those with failure of passive transfer, fever, lameness, respiratory tract disease, or diarrhea had significantly lower average daily gain versus other calves. Seventeen of the 66 (26%) calves that underwent repeated testing had positive Mycoplasma spp culture results, but positive results were not associated with otitis media. One of 42 calves with otitis media tested for Mycoplasma spp had positive results, and 1 of 43 age-matched calves without otitis media had positive results.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tulathromycin-treated calves in this study had a lower incidence of diarrhea and otitis media versus control calves. Various diseases had negative effects on average daily gain. Mycoplasma bovis status was not associated with otitis media in calves.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association