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  • Author or Editor: Laurie Larson x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine diagnostic accuracy of a point-of-care antibody-screening test by determining sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy when compared to reference standard tests for antibody against core vaccine viruses canine adenovirus (CAV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine distemper virus (CDV). A further aim was to provide the practitioner with information to guide selection of vaccinal antibody testing methods.

SAMPLES

Canine sera from across North America were submitted to a fee-for-service titer-testing laboratory. Samples came from healthy pet dogs with known core vaccination history (n = 431) as well as unvaccinated dogs held in isolation (132). This study examined a total of 563 samples for CDV/CPV and 183 for CAV.

PROCEDURES

Serum virus neutralization assays determined antibody titers for CDV and CAV. Hemagglutination inhibition assay determined antibody titers against CPV. All sera were also tested by point-of-care dot blot ELISA (index test).

RESULTS

For all 3 viral antigens, the index test provided sensitivity ranging from 96.03% to 96.75% and specificity ranging from 87.50% to 94.33%. Overall accuracy ranged from 93.43% to 95.91%.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The index test correlates well with reference standard tests and is a reliable, rapid screening test for detection of protective vaccinal antibody against CAV, CDV, and CPV in healthy dogs over 20 weeks of age. An accurate assessment of immunity allows clinicians to administer core vaccines appropriately as needed, avoiding unnecessary risk of adverse vaccine events.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effectiveness of canine parvovirus monoclonal antibody (CPMA) as a treatment against canine parvovirus (CPV-2)–induced mortality and to support USDA product licensure.

ANIMALS

28 purpose-bred Beagle dogs aged 8 weeks were randomized to the treated (n = 21) or control (7) group.

METHODS

Dogs were challenged intranasally with 104.2 TCID50 virulent CPV-2b on Day 0 and monitored for 14 days for fecal viral shed and clinical disease. All dogs began shedding CPV-2 on Day 4 and were treated intravenously with a single dose of either CPMA (0.2 mL/kg) or saline (equal volume). No additional treatments were given to either group. Feces and sera were collected for quantitative analysis of fecal viral shed (hemagglutination) and antibody responses (hemagglutination inhibition and dot-blot ELISA), respectively. Dogs were monitored twice daily for parameters including lymphopenia, fever, vomiting, abnormal feces, inappetence, and lethargy. Humane endpoints triggered euthanasia by a veterinarian masked to treatment groups. The primary outcome variable was prevention of mortality as compared to controls.

RESULTS

Mortality was prevented in all CPMA-treated dogs compared to 57% mortality in the control group (P = .0017, Fisher exact test). Canine parvovirus monoclonal antibody–treated dogs also experienced less severe and/or shorter durations of diarrhea, fever, vomiting, CPV-2 shedding in feces, and lymphopenia. Both groups showed similar immunoglobulin M responses as measured by semiquantitative analysis.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Intravenous administration of CPMA can effectively improve clinical outcome when administered early in CPV-2 disease. Canine parvovirus monoclonal antibody treatment after proven infection does not interfere with adaptive immunity.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association