OBJECTIVE To describe histologic findings in the small airways during postmortem examination of actively racing horses and to quantify the degree of airway inflammation by use of a semiquantitative scoring system.
SAMPLE Lung tissues obtained from 95 horses (Thoroughbreds, Standardbreds, and Quarter Horses) that had been actively racing or training.
PROCEDURES 10 standardized lung sections were obtained during postmortem examination of 37 horses that had been actively racing or training, and 2 histologic sections of the caudodorsal lung lobes previously collected from each of 58 horses that died or were euthanized during racing or training were also obtained. Sections were evaluated by use of a validated histologic small airway scoring system.
RESULTS Scores for inflammatory cells, smooth muscle, and hemosiderin typically were high. Signalment and cause of death were not significant predictors of lung scores. Lung sample location was a significant predictor, with the highest scores in the caudal and dorsal sections. Inflammatory cell infiltration in peribronchiolar tissues, smooth muscle hyperplasia, and hemosiderin (prevalence of 86%, 98%, and 80%, respectively) were common findings in lungs of these horses, with the caudodorsal regions more severely affected. Correlation was moderate between smooth muscle hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infltration, with minimal correlation between hemosiderin and inflammatory cell infiltration.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Inflammatory airway disease has been identified by use of bronchoalveolar lavage in young athletic horses throughout the world. In the study reported here, pathological changes were detected in the wall of small airways of horses that were actively training or racing.
OBJECTIVE To describe the ultrasonographic changes in the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) and cricoarytenoideus lateralis (CAL) muscles of horses before and at various times during the 32 weeks after unilateral neurectomy of the right recurrent laryngeal nerve.
ANIMALS 28 healthy Standardbreds.
PROCEDURES For each horse, the appearance of the CAD and CAL muscles on the right (neurectomized) and left (control) sides was serially monitored ultrasonographically by percutaneous (CAD and CAL) and transesophageal (CAD) approaches. The ultrasonographic images were assessed to determine the mean pixel intensity, muscle thickness, and appearance grade, and comparisons were made between the muscles of the neurectomized and control sides.
RESULTS The muscle appearance grade and mean pixel intensity for the CAL and CAD muscles on the neurectomized side were significantly increased by 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, after the neurectomy. The transesophageal approach enhanced the ultrasonographic visibility of the CAD muscle and allowed us to detect a significant decrease in the thickness of the CAD muscle on the neurectomized side over time, compared with thickness of the CAD muscle on the control side.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested ultrasonography can be used to successfully assess the CAL and CAD muscles of horses. A qualitative grading scheme was sufficient for successful detection and monitoring of muscle atrophy and reduced the need for image standardization. The transesophageal approach described for assessment of the CAD muscle warrants further investigation.
Objective—To develop a method for experimental induction of equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) infection in equids and to determine the clinical characteristics of such infection.
Animals—8 ponies (age, 8 to 12 months) seronegative for antibodies against ERAV.
Procedures—Nebulization was used to administer ERAV (strain ERAV/ON/05; n = 4 ponies) or cell culture medium (control ponies; 4) into airways of ponies; 4 previously ERAV-inoculated ponies were reinoculated 1 year later. Physical examinations and pulmonary function testing were performed at various times for 21 days after ERAV or mock inoculation. Various types of samples were obtained for virus isolation, blood samples were obtained for serologic testing, and clinical scores were determined for various variables.
Results—ERAV-inoculated ponies developed respiratory tract disease characterized by pyrexia, nasal discharge, adventitious lung sounds, and enlarged mandibular lymph nodes. Additionally, these animals had purulent mucus in lower airways up to the last evaluation time 21 days after inoculation (detected endoscopically). The virus was isolated from various samples obtained from lower and upper airways of ERAV-inoculated ponies up to 7 days after exposure; this time corresponded with an increase in serum titers of neutralizing antibodies against ERAV. None of the ponies developed clinical signs of disease after reinoculation 1 year later.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated ERAV induced respiratory tract disease in seronegative ponies. However, ponies with neutralizing antibodies against ERAV did not develop clinical signs of disease when reinoculated with the virus. Therefore, immunization of ponies against ERAV could prevent respiratory tract disease attributable to that virus in such animals.
Objective—To evaluate experimental induction of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) with inhaled fungal spores, lipopolysaccharide, and silica microspheres in horses.
Animals—7 horses with and 3 horses without a history of RAO.
Procedures—RAO-susceptible horses ranged in age from 17 to approximately 30 years, and control horses ranged in age from 7 to approximately 15 years. Pure mold cultures were derived from repeated culture of hay and identified via gene amplification and sequencing. Pulmonary function testing and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed before and after nebulization with a suspension of spores derived from 3 fungi, lipopolysaccharide, and 1-μm silica microspheres in all horses. This was followed by a 4-month washout period and a further pulmonary function test followed by saline (0.9% NaCl) solution challenge and bronchoalveolar lavage.
Results—Lichtheimia corymbifera, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Eurotium amstelodami were consistently identified in cultures of moldy hay. Nebulization with fungal spores, lipopolysaccharide, and microspheres induced significant increases in pleural pressure in RAO-susceptible but not control horses. Airway neutrophilia developed in both groups of horses with exposure to challenge material but more severely in RAO-susceptible horses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that inhalation of fungal spores in combination with lipopolysaccharide and silica microspheres can induce disease exacerbation in susceptible horses and may thus be a useful model for future standardized studies of RAO in horses.
Objective—To characterize the impact of Mannheimia haemolytica infection on feed intake and weight gain in feedlot heifers and to evaluate the clinical efficacy of isoflupredone acetate administered in combination with oxytetracycline.
Animals—96 weanling heifers in a research feedlot facility.
Procedures—Bronchopneumonia was induced by intrabronchial infusion of M haemolytica. Control heifers underwent a sham procedure. Infected heifers were treated with oxytetracycline alone or in combination with isoflupredone acetate (OXY-ISO) or with nothing. Clinical variables were recorded daily for 7 days following disease induction, and feedlot performance indices were measured over a 12-week period.
Results—Infection caused a reduction in dry-matter intake and average daily gain (ADG) in heifers that received no treatment. Oxytetracycline treatment alone did not prevent reductions in feed intake and ADG during the first week after infection was induced, whereas OXY-ISO treatment did prevent these reductions. Treatment with OXY-ISO also resulted in faster clinical improvement. No significant differences were evident between the oxytetracycline and OXY-ISO groups with respect to dry-matter intake or ADG throughout the study period.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Isoflupredone acetate appeared to be a useful clinical adjunct to treatment with oxytetracycline in cattle with acute M haemolytica bronchopneumonia.
Objective—To determine whether results of physical
or radiographic examination or biochemical analyses
in adult racehorses with primary lung abscesses were
associated with ability to race following treatment.
Design—Multiple-center retrospective study.
Animals—25 Standardbreds and 20 Thoroughbreds.
Procedure—Medical records of horses with a primary
lung abscess that were admitted to any of 4 veterinary
teaching hospitals were reviewed. Results of
physical examination, laboratory testing, and thoracic
radiography were reviewed. Racing performance after
treatment was compared with performance before illness
and with performance of the general population
of racehorses of similar age, sex, and breed.
Results—23 of 25 Standardbreds and 13 of 20
Thoroughbreds raced after diagnosis and treatment of
a lung abscess. Most horses had a solitary abscess in
the dorsal to caudodorsal lung fields. Results of initial
physical examination, biochemical analyses, and culture
and identification of the microbial isolate were
not associated with whether a horse returned to racing.
For horses that had raced prior to the illness, race
performance after treatment of the lung abscess was
not significantly different from performance before
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis
of racing performance in those horses that resumed
racing after treatment, long-term residual lung damage
did not develop in horses with primary lung
abscesses that were treated appropriately. It is not
known whether horses that recovered would be more
likely to bleed from the site of a prior infection when
resuming strenuous exercise and whether lung
abscesses contributed to a failure to resume racing.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1282–1287)
Objective—To compare bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid obtained by manual aspiration (MA) with a handheld syringe with that obtained by suction pump aspiration (SPA) in healthy dogs.
Animals—13 adult Beagles.
Procedures—Each dog was anesthetized and bronchoscopic BAL was performed. The MA technique was accomplished with a 35-mL syringe attached to the bronchoscope biopsy channel. The SPA technique was achieved with negative pressure (5 kPa) applied to the bronchoscope suction valve with a disposable suction trap. Both aspiration techniques were performed in each dog in randomized order on opposite caudal lung lobes. Two 1 mL/kg aliquots of warm saline (0.9% NaCl) solution were infused per site. For each BAL fluid sample, the percentage of retrieved fluid was calculated, the total nucleated cell count (TNCC) and differential cell count were determined, and semiquantitative assessment of slide quality was performed. Comparisons were made between MA and SPA techniques for each outcome.
Results—1 dog was removed from the study because of illness. The mean percentage of fluid retrieved (mean difference, 23%) and median TNCC (median distribution of differences, 100 cells/μL) for samples obtained by SPA were significantly greater than those for samples obtained by MA.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In healthy dogs, BAL by SPA resulted in a significantly higher percentage of fluid retrieval and samples with a higher TNCC than did MA. Further evaluation of aspiration techniques in dogs with respiratory tract disease is required to assess whether SPA improves the diagnostic yield of BAL samples.
Objective—To compare the diagnostic quality of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid acquired from healthy dogs by manual aspiration via polyethylene tubing (MAPT) and via suction pump aspiration (SPA) with a suction trap connection.
Animals—12 healthy adult Beagles.
Procedures—BAL was performed with bronchoscopic guidance in anesthetized dogs. The MAPT was performed with a 35-mL syringe attached to polyethylene tubing wedged in a bronchus via the bronchoscope's biopsy channel. The SPA was performed with 5 kPa of negative pressure applied to the bronchoscope's suction valve via a suction trap. The MAPT and SPA techniques were performed in randomized order on opposite caudal lung lobes of each dog. Two 1 mL/kg lavages were performed per site. Samples of BAL fluid were analyzed on the basis of a semiquantitative quality scale, percentage of retrieved fluid, and total nucleated and differential cell counts. Results were compared with Wilcoxon signed rank tests.
Results—Percentage of BAL fluid retrieved (median difference, 16.2%), surfactant score (median difference, 1), and neutrophil count (median difference, 74 cells/μL) were significantly higher for SPA than for MAPT. A higher BAL fluid epithelial cell score was obtained via MAPT, compared with that for samples obtained via SPA (median difference, 1).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that in healthy dogs, SPA provided a higher percentage of BAL fluid retrieval than did MAPT. The SPA technique may improve the rate of diagnostic success for BAL in dogs, compared with that for MAPT. Further evaluation of these aspiration techniques in dogs with respiratory tract disease is required.