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  • Author or Editor: Laurel A. Degernes x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2) correlated with PaCO2 in isoflurane-anesthetized African grey parrots receiving intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV).

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—14 healthy mature African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus timnus).

Procedure—Each bird was anesthetized via mask with isoflurane, intubated, and connected to a pressure-limited intermittent-flow ventilator. Respiratory rate was altered while holding peak inspiratory pressure constant (5 cm H2O) to achieve a PETCO2 in 1 of 3 ranges: < 30 mm Hg, 30 to 40 mm Hg, and > 40 mm Hg. Blood was collected from the superficial ulnar artery of each bird at least once during each of the 3 ranges. Arterial blood samples were collected for blood gas analysis while PETCO2 was recorded simultaneously.

Results—A strong correlation between PETCO2 and PaCO2 was detected over a wide range of partial pressures, although PETCO2 consistently overestimated PaCO2 by approximately 5 mm Hg. End-tidal partial pressure of CO2 and PaCO2 also correlated well with arterial blood pH, and the acute response of the bicarbonate buffer system to changes in ventilation was similar to that of mammals.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that PETCO2 reliably estimates PaCO2 in isofluraneanesthetized African grey parrots receiving IPPV and suggest that IPPV combined with capnography is a viable option for anesthetic maintenance in avian anesthesia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1714–1718)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine outcome of bougienage for treatment of benign esophageal stricture (BES) in dogs and cats and identify risk factors for the condition.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—20 dogs and 8 cats with BES.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, clinical features, and outcome. Long-term outcome information was obtained with a questionnaire.

Results—Esophageal bougienage was performed with dilators ranging from 5 to 15 mm in diameter; median numbers of bougienage procedures were 3 (dogs) and 4.5 (cats). A good outcome, defined as tolerance of solid food with regurgitation less than once a week, was achieved in 14 dogs and 6 cats. Complications were minimal, with nonfatal esophageal perforation occurring in 1 cat. Four dogs and 1 cat were euthanized or died because of esophageal disease. Dogs with BES were more likely to be female, have a recent history of general anesthesia, have received an antimicrobial orally, or have a history of vomiting than were dogs in a reference population. Cats with BES were more likely to have a recent history of general anesthesia, vomiting, or gastrointestinal tract trichobezoars than were cats in a reference population. Doxycycline-induced esophagitis was the suspected cause of BES in 3 cats. Although general anesthesia was associated with development of BES in 18 dogs and 5 cats, concurrent potential causes of esophageal injury were common.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that esophageal bougienage was a safe and effective treatment for most dogs and cats with BES, with outcomes similar to those reported for balloon dilation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence, clinical features, and causes of epistaxis in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—176 dogs with epistaxis.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information related to signalment, clinical features, diagnosis, and outcome.

Results—132 (75%) dogs were initially examined by the hospital's emergency service; prevalence of epistaxis was 0.3%. Dogs with epistaxis were more likely to be old (≥ 6 years), male, and large (≥ 26 kg [58.5 lb]) than were dogs in a reference population. In 109 (62%) dogs with epistaxis, an underlying cause was identified; 115 underlying disorders were identified, with 90 classified as local and 25 classified as systemic. Local causes of epistaxis included nasal neoplasia (n = 35), trauma (33), idiopathic rhinitis (20), and periapical abscess (2). Systemic causes included thrombocytopenia (12), thrombocytopathia (7), coagulopathy (3), hypertension (2), and vasculitis (1). Dogs with local causes were more likely to have unilateral than bilateral epistaxis, but 11 of 21 (52%) dogs with systemic disorders also had unilateral epistaxis. Dogs with systemic disorders were more likely to have clinical signs of systemic disease. Duration of epistaxis (acute vs chronic), severity, and duration of hospitalization were similar for dogs with local versus systemic disorders.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that epistaxis was a common disorder in dogs and frequently regarded as an emergency. Local causes of epistaxis were predominant, but clinical features traditionally thought to be helpful in distinguishing local versus systemic causes could not be reliably used for this purpose.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association