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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the cardiorespiratory effects, quality and duration of sedation of 2 subcutaneous sedation protocols for noninvasive procedures in guinea pigs (GPs).

ANIMALS

24 pet GPs (15 females, 9 males) of 3 different age groups: infant (n = 8), juvenile (8), and adult (8).

PROCEDURES

The study design was a randomized, crossover, blinded, clinical trial with a washout period of at least 7 days between protocols. Guinea pigs were sedated SC with alfaxalone (5 mg/kg; group A) or alfaxalone (5 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg; group A + M) to facilitate blood sampling, radiography, or abdominal ultrasonography. Vital parameters, hemoglobin saturation (SpO2), and sedation scores were recorded every 5 minutes.

RESULTS

Mean heart rate was lower in group A than group A + M (P = 0.001), and respiratory rate was significantly (P = 0.001) decreased relative to baseline during sedation in both groups. The SpO2 remained above 95% in both sedation groups. Rectal temperature was significantly (P = 0.001) lower during recovery versus baseline. Onset of sedation was shorter and the duration longer in group A + M than in group A. The duration and depth of the sedation was different between age groups (P = 0.001), being longer and deeper in adults. Bruxism, hectic movements, twitching, and some degree of hyperreactivity were observed during 41 of the 48 sedations.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Subcutaneous administration of alfaxalone provided reliable sedation for nonpainful procedures in GPs. When combined with midazolam, alfaxalone provided longer and deeper sedation that was more significant in adults than in younger patients.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of excretory urography performed during radiography (REU) and CT (CTEU) in healthy rabbits, determine timings of urogram phases, and compare sensitivities of REU and CTEU for detection of these phases.

ANIMALS 13 New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

PROCEDURES Rabbits were screened for signs of systemic and urinary tract disease. An REU examination of each was performed, followed ≥ 5 days later by a CTEU examination. Contrast images from each modality were evaluated for quality of opacification and intervals between initiation of contrast medium administration and detection of various urogram phases.

RESULTS Excretory urograms of excellent diagnostic quality were achieved with both imaging modalities. For all rabbits, the nephrographic phase of the urogram appeared in the first postcontrast REU image (obtained between 34 and 40 seconds after initiation of contrast medium administration) and at a median interval of 20 seconds in CTEU images. The pyelographic phase began at a median interval of 1.63 minutes with both imaging modalities. Contrast medium was visible within the urinary bladder at a median interval of 2.20 minutes. Median interval to the point at which the nephrogram and pyelogram were no longer visible in REU images was 8 hours and 2.67 hours, respectively. The CTEU technique was better than the REU technique for evaluating renal parenchyma.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that REU and, particularly, CTEU may be valuable tools for the diagnosis of renal and urinary tract disease in rabbits; however, additional evaluation in diseased rabbits is required.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe a treatment for a mandibular fracture in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

ANIMAL

A 6-month-old sexually intact male guinea pig referred for a 24-hour history of hyporexia.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION, PROGRESSION, AND PROCEDURES

Physical examination showed lateral displacement of the incisors and inflammation and crepitation during mandible lateralization. Imaging tests revealed a minimally displaced complete oblique fracture of the left mandible with fracture of the left mandibular first premolar tooth and incisor tooth.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Conservative treatment was established by placing a chin sling (CS) to immobilize the jaw and a nasogastric tube for nutritional support. Imaging tests repeated 3 weeks later showed initial callus formation, and the conservative treatment was discontinued. Follow-up examinations showed appetite and progressive weight gain. Five months later, the clinical crown of the left mandibular incisor was absent and a resorptive lesion on the left mandibular first premolar tooth was detected. Complete ossification of the fracture without premolar and moler teeth elongation was observed on control imaging tests. Ten months after initial examination, the patient was reportedly healthy with no signs of pain or dental disease.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Jaw fracture treatments in guinea pigs are poorly described in the literature. Surgical treatment can be challenging in this species due to its skull and dental anatomy. Although CS was originally employed to increase the congruency of premolar and molar teeth after coronal reduction, this device yielded satisfactory results as a noninvasive, inexpensive treatment of a mandibular fracture in this guinea pig. Alopecia on the back of the head was the only undesired adverse effect associated with the CS.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association