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  • Author or Editor: Laura Van Vertloo x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The first objective was to determine if the sample collection method (naturally voided vs digital rectal examination collection) affected fecal occult blood test (FOBT) results. The second objective was to assess the ability of human fecal hemoglobin immunochemical tests to detect canine and feline blood.

ANIMALS

308 privately owned dogs, healthy and sick.

METHODS

Guaiac FOBTs were performed on paired voided and rectally obtained canine fecal samples. The kappa statistic was used to assess agreement between the 2 collection methods, and a multivariate regression model was used to identify factors associated with a positive FOBT. Two fecal immunochemical tests (FITs; Hemosure One Step and OC-Light S) were tested with serially diluted human, canine, and feline blood.

RESULTS

Voided and rectally obtained samples showed strong FOB-positivity agreement (k = 0.80), with 92.5% concordance and only 13/308 dogs negative on void but positive on rectal. Multivariate analysis showed dogs with gastrointestinal disease (P = .0008, rectal; P = .0001, void) were more likely and heavier dogs (P = .0037, rectal; P = .0022 void) were less likely to test FOBT positive. Health status, fasting status, NSAID use, and age were associated with FOBT results on univariate, but not multivariate, analysis. FITs did not detect canine or feline blood at any concentration while human blood performed as expected.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Rectally obtained fecal samples can be reliably used for FOBTs. Human FITs may not be suitable for companion animals, but evaluation of other available tests is needed.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate systemic absorption and gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects of topical ketorolac 0.5% and diclofenac 0.1% ophthalmic solutions.

ANIMALS

11 healthy purpose-bred Beagles.

METHODS

Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either ketorolac (n = 6) or diclofenac (5), 1 drop in both eyes 4 times daily for 28 days. Upper GI endoscopy was performed on days 0 and 29 with mucosal lesion scores (0 to 7) assigned to each region evaluated. Plasma samples were collected on days 14, 21, and 28 for measurement of diclofenac and ketorolac using high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry.

RESULTS

GI erosions and/or ulcers developed in all ketorolac-treated dogs and 1 of 5 diclofenac-treated dogs. Post-treatment mucosal lesion score for the antrum was higher in the ketorolac group than in the diclofenac group (P = .006) but not significantly different for any other region. Post-treatment antral mucosal lesion scores were significantly related to plasma ketorolac concentrations (P < .001). Ketorolac and diclofenac were detected in the plasma at all time points (median ketorolac day 14, 191 ng/mL; day 21, 173.5 ng/mL; and day 28, 179.5 ng/mL; and median diclofenac day 14, 21.1 ng/mL; day 21, 20.6 ng/mL; day 28, 27.5 ng/mL). Vomiting and decreased appetite events were observed uncommonly and were not significantly different between treatment groups.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

GI ulceration and erosion developed after ophthalmic administration of ketorolac and diclofenac, with higher plasma concentrations and more severe GI lesions associated with ketorolac. Clients should be alerted to this potential risk with ophthalmic use and informed to watch for systemic clinical signs that would warrant veterinary reevaluation.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association