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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of firocoxib, meloxicam, and tepoxalin administration in healthy cats by measuring the ability of stimulated tissues to synthesize eicosanoids ex vivo.

Animals—8 healthy adult male cats.

Procedures—In a blinded, randomized, crossover study design, cats were treated with firocoxib (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), meloxicam (0.05 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), tepoxalin (5.0 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h), or a placebo for 8 days. Blood samples and gastric and duodenal mucosal biopsy specimens were collected on days 0 (baseline; immediately before treatment), 3, and 8 of each treatment period. Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) concentrations were measured in serum, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) concentrations were measured in plasma. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) synthesis, PGE2 synthesis, and LTB4 concentrations were measured in mucosal biopsy specimens. A 21-day minimum washout period was observed between treatments. Repeated-measures analyses were performed.

Results—Firocoxib and meloxicam administration resulted in a lower plasma PGE2 concentration than at baseline on days 3 and 8 of administration, whereas tepoxalin administration did not. Tepoxalin administration resulted in a lower serum TXB2 concentration and pyloric and duodenal PGE1 synthesis on both days, compared with baseline and placebo administration. Neither firocoxib nor meloxicam administration altered pyloric or duodenal PGE1 synthesis on either day, compared with placebo administration. Tepoxalin administration also resulted in lower pyloric mucosal LTB4 concentrations on both days, compared with baseline values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Firocoxib and meloxicam administration had no effect on cyclooxygenase-1 activity, whereas tepoxalin administration resulted in inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1067–1073)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the effect of therapeutic dosages of meloxicam on the plasma clearance of iohexol in healthy, euvolemic, conscious cats fed a sodium-replete diet.

Animals—6 healthy adult neutered male cats.

Procedures—For each treatment period in a masked, randomized, crossover study, cats were administered either no treatment or meloxicam. Iohexol clearance studies were performed before the treatment period began (baseline) and on the final day of the treatment period. Iohexol concentrations were determined by use of a high-performance liquid chromatography assay, and plasma iohexol clearance as a marker of glomerular filtration rate was calculated by use of a 1-compartment model.

Results—No significant treatment effect was detected. Mean ± SE iohexol clearance for cats administered meloxicam (3.31 ± 0.27 mL/min/kg) was not significantly different from mean baseline value for the meloxicam treatment period (3.07 ± 0.32 mL/min/kg).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In this study, short-term meloxicam administration did not measurably alter the glomerular filtration rate as assessed via plasma clearance of iohexol. This suggests that renal prostaglandins in cats did not have a measurable effect on glomerular filtration rates in healthy, euvolemic, conscious states as determined on the basis of methods used in this study.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiological features of an outbreak of leptospirosis in dogs in Maricopa County, Ariz, from January 2016 through June 2017.

ANIMALS

71 case and 281 control dogs.

PROCEDURES

Cases were classified as confirmed, probable, suspect, or not a case on the basis of medical record data that fulfilled clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiological criteria. Potential exposures were assessed by owner survey. For the case-control investigation, control dogs were recruited through owner completion of a July 2017 survey. Summary statistics and ORs for case dog lifestyle factors were reported.

RESULTS

54 dogs were classified as confirmed and 17 as probable cases. For 4 dogs of a household cluster (5 confirmed and 3 probable), the highest microscopic agglutination titer was for serovar Djasiman (Leptospira kirschneri detected by PCR assay), and for 13 dogs of a community outbreak (49 confirmed and 14 probable cases), the highest titer was for serovar Canicola (Leptospira interrogans detected by PCR assay). The 44 case dogs included in the case-control investigation were 7.7 (95% CI, 3.5 to 16.7) and 2.9 times (95% CI, 1.3 to 6.6) as likely as control dogs to have visited dog daycare or to have been kenneled overnight at a boarding facility, respectively, 30 days prior to the onset of clinical signs or diagnosis.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Diagnostic and epidemiological findings indicated 2 outbreaks. Transmission where dogs congregated likely propagated the community outbreak. Outbreaks of leptospiral infections can occur in regions of low prevalence, and a dog's exposure to areas where dogs congregate should be considered when making Leptospira vaccination recommendations.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association