Objective—To investigate differences in clinical variables among dogs with extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSSs) of various morphologies.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—53 dogs with EHPSSs.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs undergoing preoperative CT angiography of an EHPSS over a 3-year period were reviewed. Analysis was performed to investigate relationships of clinical variables with shunt morphology. Morphologies were analyzed individually as well as in several groups.
Results—Shunt morphologies included 10 splenocaval, 9 splenophrenic, 11 splenoazygos, 10 right gastric-caval, 12 right gastric-caval with a caudal loop, and 1 right gastric-azygos with a caudal loop. Several biochemical variables associated with EHPSS were lowest in dogs with splenocaval shunts. Preoperative clinical signs were more common in dogs that had shunts with vena caval than right azygos vein insertion (36/41 [88%] vs 7/12 [58%]) and insertion caudal to the liver than diaphragmatic insertion (29/32 [91%] vs 14/21 [67%]). Neurologic signs were more common when shunts inserted into the vena cava caudal to the liver than in other locations (21/32 [66%] vs 6/21 [29%]) and were most frequent with splenocaval shunts. Urinary tract signs were more common when shunts had right gastric vein origin than gastrosplenic vein origin (14/23 [61%] vs 10/30 [33%]).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Splenocaval shunts caused more clinical abnormalities than did other shunt morphologies. Results suggested that dogs with shunt insertion in the caudal vena cava, especially caudal to the liver, were most likely to have clinical signs.
A 5-year-old sexually intact female Alaskan Malamute was evaluated at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Michigan State University because of lethargy of 1 day's duration and a single episode of vomiting. The dog's most recent estrous cycle had occurred 8 months prior to hospital admission. The dog was successfully bred during this cycle, and healthy puppies were delivered via cesarean section.
On physical examination, the patient was hyperthermic with a rectal temperature of 40.1°C (104.2°F) and tachycardic with a heart rate of 132 beats/min. The abdomen was tense, and a mass (diameter, approx 10 cm) was palpated in the
A 2-year-old 5.2-kg (11.4-lb) spayed female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of acute dyspnea. One week prior to evaluation, the cat had a right forelimb lameness, the cause of which was unknown. The referring veterinarian performed radiography of the right forelimb; radiographic findings revealed a closed fracture of the distal aspect of the right ulna. The cat was placed under general anesthesia without endotracheal intubation for splint placement. No other injuries or abnormalities were found on physical examination. No signs of respiratory distress were apparent.
At the time of referral, the cat was open-mouth breathing. Orthopnea was evident.
Case Description—An 8-year-old 38-kg (84-lb) castrated male German Shepherd Dog cross was evaluated because of respiratory distress secondary to pneumothorax (detected radio-graphically prior to referral).
Clinical Findings—CT of the thorax confirmed the presence of pneumothorax and revealed pulmonary blebs without evidence of infiltrative pulmonary changes. A tentative diagnosis of primary spontaneous pneumothorax was made.
Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory median sternotomy revealed emphysematous changes along the margins of all lung lobes, with the ventral margins of the left cranial, right cranial, and right middle lung lobes most affected. Partial lobectomies of the ventral aspects of these lobes were performed. Histologic examination of tissue samples from the lung lobes revealed diffuse smooth muscle hypertrophy of the terminal and respiratory bronchioles with moderate numbers of peribronchiolar eosinophils. Mucus plugs and mucous cell metaplasia within the airway epithelium were also evident. After surgery, clinical signs resolved and the dog was discharged from the hospital 2 days later. Eight months after surgery, the dog developed a mild cough, and treatment with prednisolone (tapering dosage starting at 0.5 mg/kg [0.023 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) was initiated. Dosage reduction resulted in recurrence of coughing; however, with continued prednisolone treatment at a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg, PO, once daily, the dog was not coughing at 10 months after surgery.
Clinical Relevance—Reactive bronchopneumopathy should be included as a differential diagnosis for spontaneous pneumothorax in dogs.
Objective—To evaluate cardiac function parameters
in a group of active and hibernating grizzly bears.
Animals—6 subadult grizzly bears.
Procedure—Indirect blood pressure, a 12-lead ECG,
and a routine echocardiogram were obtained in each
bear during the summer active phase and during
Results—All measurements of myocardial contractility
were significantly lower in all bears during hibernation,
compared with the active period. Mean rate of
circumferential left ventricular shortening, percentage
fractional shortening, and percentage left ventricular
ejection fraction were significantly lower in bears during
hibernation, compared with the active period.
Certain indices of diastolic function appeared to indicate
enhanced ventricular compliance during the
hibernation period. Mean mitral inflow ratio and isovolumic
relaxation time were greater during hibernation.
Heart rate was significantly lower for hibernating
bears, and mean cardiac index was lower but not significantly
different from cardiac index during the
active phase. Contrary to results obtained in hibernating
rodent species, cardiac index was not significantly
correlated with heart rate.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cardiac function
parameters in hibernating bears are opposite to
the chronic bradycardic effects detected in nonhibernating
species, likely because of intrinsic cardiac muscle
adaptations during hibernation. Understanding
mechanisms and responses of the myocardium during
hibernation could yield insight into mechanisms of
cardiac function regulation in various disease states in
nonhibernating species. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1170–1175)
Objective—To investigate whether combined treatment with gemcitabine and piroxicam in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder is tolerated and provides an advantage in terms of survival time over previously reported treatments.
Animals—38 dogs with TCC of the urinary bladder.
Procedures—Dogs were treated with gemcitabine (800 mg/m2, IV over 30 to 60 minutes, q 7 d) and piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h). Complete blood cell counts were monitored prior to each gemcitabine treatment. All toxic effects of gemcitabine in dogs were recorded. Primary tumors were ultrasonographically reevaluated after 4 gemcitabine treatments.
Results—Dogs received a median of 8 gemcitabine treatments (range, 1 to 38 treatments/dog). In response to treatment, 10 of 38 (26.3%) dogs had grade 1 gastrointestinal tract signs, 11 (28.9%) had grade 2, and 5 (13.2%) had grade 3. Grade 1 neutropenia developed in 6 (15.8%) dogs and grade 2 and 3 neutropenia in 2 (5.3%) dogs each. Thrombocytopenia was rare. All dogs had improvement of clinical signs of disease. Two dogs had a complete tumor response, 8 had a partial response, 19 had stable disease, and 8 had progressive disease. Median survival time with treatment was 230 days.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of gemcitabine in combination with piroxicam treatment failed to provide a longer overall survival time in dogs with TCC of the urinary bladder, compared with previously reported treatment strategies. However, this combination of chemotherapy did provide a new treatment alternative with fewer adverse effects.
Objective—To determine correlation between results
of computed tomography (CT) versus pathologic
examination for determining the volume percentage
of affected lung in mice experimentally infected with
Animals—30 adult mice.
Procedure—After helical CT scans on day 0, mice
were inoculated intranasally with P pneumotropica.
Repeat CT scans were performed on days 1, 2, 3, 4,
6, 8, 10, and 13. Regions of interest (affected areas)
were manually drawn on the CT images, and percentage
volume of normal lung was calculated by use
of 3 methods: first-day volume, largest volume, and
last-day volume. Three mice were euthanatized for
pathologic evaluation after each scan day. The lungs
were examined with a dissection microscope, and
lesion scores were assigned on the basis of percentage
volume of pneumonia. Correlation coefficients
comparing results of the 3 CT methods with results
of gross examination were calculated.
Results—Lung abnormalities were detected via dissection
microscopy by postinfection day 2 and via CT
by days 2 or 3. Correlation coefficients for the 3 CT
methods of analysis, compared with pathologic findings,
were 0.7 via first-day lung volume, 0.8 via
largest lung volume, and 0.8 via last-day lung volume.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of CT
correlated well with results of dissection microscopy
for estimating percentage volume of lung affected by
pneumonia in mice experimentally infected with
P pneumotropica. This method may be useful for longitudinal
studies of pneumonia in mice. (Am J Vet Res
To evaluate effects of laparoscopic-assisted incisional gastropexy (LAIG) on gastric motility in dogs by use of a wireless motility device (WMD).
10 healthy client-owned large or giant-breed dogs.
10 dogs owned by clients interested in prophylactic LAIG were enrolled. To determine effects of LAIG on gastrointestinal motility in dogs during the nonfed state, each dog was evaluated by use of a noninvasive WMD before and > 4 weeks after LAIG. All dogs underwent LAIG, with or without concurrent elective gonadectomy. Data obtained before and after LAIG were analyzed by use of proprietary software to determine the gastric emptying time, small bowel transit time, large bowel transit time, whole bowel transit time, and motility index.
No changes in variables were detected between measurements obtained before and after prophylactic LAIG.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
In this study, prophylactic LAIG did not have an effect on gastrointestinal motility. The WMD was tolerated well by all dogs and appeared to be a safe and effective method for evaluating gastrointestinal motility in this population of dogs.
Objective—To examine the role of bovine viral diarrhea
virus (BVDV) biotype on the establishment of
fetal infection in cattle.
Animals—30 mixed-breed pregnant cows.
Procedure—Pregnant cows were inoculated
oronasally with either i-VVNADL, originating from an
infectious BVDV cDNA clone of the National Animal
Disease Laboratory (NADL) isolate, or the parental
virus stock, termed NADL-A.
Results—All cows developed neutralizing antibodies
to BVDV, and virus was commonly isolated from
peripheral blood mononuclear cells or nasal swab
specimens of NADL-A inoculated cows; however,
virus was rarely isolated from specimens of i-VVNADL
inoculated cows. i-VVNADL did not cause fetal infection,
whereas all fetuses harvested from NADL-A
inoculated cows at 6 weeks after inoculation had evidence
of infection. Immunoblot analysis of fetal virus
isolates revealed the absence of NS3, confirming a
noncytopathic (NCP) biotype BVDV in the NADL-A
stock. The sequence of the NCP contaminant (termed
NADL-1102) and the i-VVNADL genome were virtually
identical, with the exception of a 270 nucleotide-long
insert in the i-VVNADL genome. Phylogenetic analyses
revealed that NADL-1102 forms a monophyletic
group with 6 other NADL genomes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data
suggest that the contaminating NCP virus in the
NADL-A stock was the ancestral NADL virus, which
originally infected a bovine fetus and recombined to
produce a cytopathic (CP) variant. Following oronasal
infection of pregnant cows, viremia and transplacental
transmission of CP BVDV to the fetus is rare, compared
with the high occurrence of maternal viremia
and fetal infection observed with NCP BVDV.
(Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1455–1463)
To describe veterinary house officers’ perceptions of dimensions of well-being during postgraduate training and to identify potential areas for targeted intervention.
303 house officers.
A 62-item questionnaire was generated by use of an online platform and sent to house officers at participating institutions in October 2020. Responses were analyzed for trends and associations between selected variables.
239 residents, 45 rotating interns, and 19 specialty interns responded to the survey. The majority of house officers felt that their training program negatively interfered with their exercise habits, diet, and social engagement. House officers reported engaging in exercise significantly less during times of clinical responsibility, averaging 1.6 exercise sessions/wk (SD ± 0.8) on clinical duty and 2.4 exercise sessions/wk (SD ± 0.9) when not on clinical duty (P < 0.001). Ninety-four percent of respondents reported experiencing some degree of anxiety regarding their physical health, and 95% of house officers reported feeling some degree of anxiety regarding their current financial situation. Overall, 47% reported that their work-life balance was unsustainable for > 1 year; there was no association between specialty and sustainability of work-life balance. Most house officers were satisfied with their current training program, level of clinical responsibility, and mentorship.
Veterinary house officers demonstrated a poor balance between the demands of postgraduate training and maintenance of personal health. Thoughtful interventions are needed to support the well-being of veterinary house officers.