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Abstract

Objective—To investigate differences in clinical variables among dogs with extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSSs) of various morphologies.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—53 dogs with EHPSSs.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs undergoing preoperative CT angiography of an EHPSS over a 3-year period were reviewed. Analysis was performed to investigate relationships of clinical variables with shunt morphology. Morphologies were analyzed individually as well as in several groups.

Results—Shunt morphologies included 10 splenocaval, 9 splenophrenic, 11 splenoazygos, 10 right gastric-caval, 12 right gastric-caval with a caudal loop, and 1 right gastric-azygos with a caudal loop. Several biochemical variables associated with EHPSS were lowest in dogs with splenocaval shunts. Preoperative clinical signs were more common in dogs that had shunts with vena caval than right azygos vein insertion (36/41 [88%] vs 7/12 [58%]) and insertion caudal to the liver than diaphragmatic insertion (29/32 [91%] vs 14/21 [67%]). Neurologic signs were more common when shunts inserted into the vena cava caudal to the liver than in other locations (21/32 [66%] vs 6/21 [29%]) and were most frequent with splenocaval shunts. Urinary tract signs were more common when shunts had right gastric vein origin than gastrosplenic vein origin (14/23 [61%] vs 10/30 [33%]).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Splenocaval shunts caused more clinical abnormalities than did other shunt morphologies. Results suggested that dogs with shunt insertion in the caudal vena cava, especially caudal to the liver, were most likely to have clinical signs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 5-year-old sexually intact female Alaskan Malamute was evaluated at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Michigan State University because of lethargy of 1 day's duration and a single episode of vomiting. The dog's most recent estrous cycle had occurred 8 months prior to hospital admission. The dog was successfully bred during this cycle, and healthy puppies were delivered via cesarean section.

On physical examination, the patient was hyperthermic with a rectal temperature of 40.1°C (104.2°F) and tachycardic with a heart rate of 132 beats/min. The abdomen was tense, and a mass (diameter, approx 10 cm) was palpated in the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 2-year-old 5.2-kg (11.4-lb) spayed female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of acute dyspnea. One week prior to evaluation, the cat had a right forelimb lameness, the cause of which was unknown. The referring veterinarian performed radiography of the right forelimb; radiographic findings revealed a closed fracture of the distal aspect of the right ulna. The cat was placed under general anesthesia without endotracheal intubation for splint placement. No other injuries or abnormalities were found on physical examination. No signs of respiratory distress were apparent.

At the time of referral, the cat was open-mouth breathing. Orthopnea was evident.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—An 8-year-old 38-kg (84-lb) castrated male German Shepherd Dog cross was evaluated because of respiratory distress secondary to pneumothorax (detected radio-graphically prior to referral).

Clinical Findings—CT of the thorax confirmed the presence of pneumothorax and revealed pulmonary blebs without evidence of infiltrative pulmonary changes. A tentative diagnosis of primary spontaneous pneumothorax was made.

Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory median sternotomy revealed emphysematous changes along the margins of all lung lobes, with the ventral margins of the left cranial, right cranial, and right middle lung lobes most affected. Partial lobectomies of the ventral aspects of these lobes were performed. Histologic examination of tissue samples from the lung lobes revealed diffuse smooth muscle hypertrophy of the terminal and respiratory bronchioles with moderate numbers of peribronchiolar eosinophils. Mucus plugs and mucous cell metaplasia within the airway epithelium were also evident. After surgery, clinical signs resolved and the dog was discharged from the hospital 2 days later. Eight months after surgery, the dog developed a mild cough, and treatment with prednisolone (tapering dosage starting at 0.5 mg/kg [0.023 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) was initiated. Dosage reduction resulted in recurrence of coughing; however, with continued prednisolone treatment at a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg, PO, once daily, the dog was not coughing at 10 months after surgery.

Clinical Relevance—Reactive bronchopneumopathy should be included as a differential diagnosis for spontaneous pneumothorax in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate cardiac function parameters in a group of active and hibernating grizzly bears.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—6 subadult grizzly bears.

Procedure—Indirect blood pressure, a 12-lead ECG, and a routine echocardiogram were obtained in each bear during the summer active phase and during hibernation.

Results—All measurements of myocardial contractility were significantly lower in all bears during hibernation, compared with the active period. Mean rate of circumferential left ventricular shortening, percentage fractional shortening, and percentage left ventricular ejection fraction were significantly lower in bears during hibernation, compared with the active period. Certain indices of diastolic function appeared to indicate enhanced ventricular compliance during the hibernation period. Mean mitral inflow ratio and isovolumic relaxation time were greater during hibernation. Heart rate was significantly lower for hibernating bears, and mean cardiac index was lower but not significantly different from cardiac index during the active phase. Contrary to results obtained in hibernating rodent species, cardiac index was not significantly correlated with heart rate.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cardiac function parameters in hibernating bears are opposite to the chronic bradycardic effects detected in nonhibernating species, likely because of intrinsic cardiac muscle adaptations during hibernation. Understanding mechanisms and responses of the myocardium during hibernation could yield insight into mechanisms of cardiac function regulation in various disease states in nonhibernating species. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1170–1175)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To investigate whether combined treatment with gemcitabine and piroxicam in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder is tolerated and provides an advantage in terms of survival time over previously reported treatments.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—38 dogs with TCC of the urinary bladder.

Procedures—Dogs were treated with gemcitabine (800 mg/m2, IV over 30 to 60 minutes, q 7 d) and piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h). Complete blood cell counts were monitored prior to each gemcitabine treatment. All toxic effects of gemcitabine in dogs were recorded. Primary tumors were ultrasonographically reevaluated after 4 gemcitabine treatments.

Results—Dogs received a median of 8 gemcitabine treatments (range, 1 to 38 treatments/dog). In response to treatment, 10 of 38 (26.3%) dogs had grade 1 gastrointestinal tract signs, 11 (28.9%) had grade 2, and 5 (13.2%) had grade 3. Grade 1 neutropenia developed in 6 (15.8%) dogs and grade 2 and 3 neutropenia in 2 (5.3%) dogs each. Thrombocytopenia was rare. All dogs had improvement of clinical signs of disease. Two dogs had a complete tumor response, 8 had a partial response, 19 had stable disease, and 8 had progressive disease. Median survival time with treatment was 230 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of gemcitabine in combination with piroxicam treatment failed to provide a longer overall survival time in dogs with TCC of the urinary bladder, compared with previously reported treatment strategies. However, this combination of chemotherapy did provide a new treatment alternative with fewer adverse effects.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine correlation between results of computed tomography (CT) versus pathologic examination for determining the volume percentage of affected lung in mice experimentally infected with Pasteurella pneumotropica.

Animals—30 adult mice.

Procedure—After helical CT scans on day 0, mice were inoculated intranasally with P pneumotropica. Repeat CT scans were performed on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 13. Regions of interest (affected areas) were manually drawn on the CT images, and percentage volume of normal lung was calculated by use of 3 methods: first-day volume, largest volume, and last-day volume. Three mice were euthanatized for pathologic evaluation after each scan day. The lungs were examined with a dissection microscope, and lesion scores were assigned on the basis of percentage volume of pneumonia. Correlation coefficients comparing results of the 3 CT methods with results of gross examination were calculated.

Results—Lung abnormalities were detected via dissection microscopy by postinfection day 2 and via CT by days 2 or 3. Correlation coefficients for the 3 CT methods of analysis, compared with pathologic findings, were 0.7 via first-day lung volume, 0.8 via largest lung volume, and 0.8 via last-day lung volume.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of CT correlated well with results of dissection microscopy for estimating percentage volume of lung affected by pneumonia in mice experimentally infected with P pneumotropica. This method may be useful for longitudinal studies of pneumonia in mice. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:835–838)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate effects of laparoscopic-assisted incisional gastropexy (LAIG) on gastric motility in dogs by use of a wireless motility device (WMD).

ANIMALS

10 healthy client-owned large or giant-breed dogs.

PROCEDURES

10 dogs owned by clients interested in prophylactic LAIG were enrolled. To determine effects of LAIG on gastrointestinal motility in dogs during the nonfed state, each dog was evaluated by use of a noninvasive WMD before and > 4 weeks after LAIG. All dogs underwent LAIG, with or without concurrent elective gonadectomy. Data obtained before and after LAIG were analyzed by use of proprietary software to determine the gastric emptying time, small bowel transit time, large bowel transit time, whole bowel transit time, and motility index.

RESULTS

No changes in variables were detected between measurements obtained before and after prophylactic LAIG.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In this study, prophylactic LAIG did not have an effect on gastrointestinal motility. The WMD was tolerated well by all dogs and appeared to be a safe and effective method for evaluating gastrointestinal motility in this population of dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To examine the role of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) biotype on the establishment of fetal infection in cattle.

Animals—30 mixed-breed pregnant cows.

Procedure—Pregnant cows were inoculated oronasally with either i-VVNADL, originating from an infectious BVDV cDNA clone of the National Animal Disease Laboratory (NADL) isolate, or the parental virus stock, termed NADL-A.

Results—All cows developed neutralizing antibodies to BVDV, and virus was commonly isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells or nasal swab specimens of NADL-A inoculated cows; however, virus was rarely isolated from specimens of i-VVNADL inoculated cows. i-VVNADL did not cause fetal infection, whereas all fetuses harvested from NADL-A inoculated cows at 6 weeks after inoculation had evidence of infection. Immunoblot analysis of fetal virus isolates revealed the absence of NS3, confirming a noncytopathic (NCP) biotype BVDV in the NADL-A stock. The sequence of the NCP contaminant (termed NADL-1102) and the i-VVNADL genome were virtually identical, with the exception of a 270 nucleotide-long insert in the i-VVNADL genome. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that NADL-1102 forms a monophyletic group with 6 other NADL genomes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data suggest that the contaminating NCP virus in the NADL-A stock was the ancestral NADL virus, which originally infected a bovine fetus and recombined to produce a cytopathic (CP) variant. Following oronasal infection of pregnant cows, viremia and transplacental transmission of CP BVDV to the fetus is rare, compared with the high occurrence of maternal viremia and fetal infection observed with NCP BVDV. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1455–1463)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe veterinary house officers’ perceptions of dimensions of well-being during postgraduate training and to identify potential areas for targeted intervention.

SAMPLE

303 house officers.

PROCEDURES

A 62-item questionnaire was generated by use of an online platform and sent to house officers at participating institutions in October 2020. Responses were analyzed for trends and associations between selected variables.

RESULTS

239 residents, 45 rotating interns, and 19 specialty interns responded to the survey. The majority of house officers felt that their training program negatively interfered with their exercise habits, diet, and social engagement. House officers reported engaging in exercise significantly less during times of clinical responsibility, averaging 1.6 exercise sessions/wk (SD ± 0.8) on clinical duty and 2.4 exercise sessions/wk (SD ± 0.9) when not on clinical duty (P < 0.001). Ninety-four percent of respondents reported experiencing some degree of anxiety regarding their physical health, and 95% of house officers reported feeling some degree of anxiety regarding their current financial situation. Overall, 47% reported that their work-life balance was unsustainable for > 1 year; there was no association between specialty and sustainability of work-life balance. Most house officers were satisfied with their current training program, level of clinical responsibility, and mentorship.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Veterinary house officers demonstrated a poor balance between the demands of postgraduate training and maintenance of personal health. Thoughtful interventions are needed to support the well-being of veterinary house officers.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association