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Objective—To evaluate bispectral index (BIS), spectral edge frequency 95% (SEF), and median frequency (MED) in relation to a visual analogue scale (VAS) as indicators of anesthetic depth for various concentrations of sevoflurane and isoflurane in pigs.

Animals—32 pigs.

Procedure—Pigs were randomly allocated to 8 groups (4 pigs/group). An electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in each conscious pig. Pigs were then anesthetized by use of sevoflurane (n = 16) or isoflurane (16). Agents were administered in oxygen at minimum alveolar concentrations (MACs) of 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75 MAC in a randomized order. End-tidal sevoflurane and isoflurane concentrations were maintained for 30 minutes, after which an EEG was recorded for 5 minutes; BIS, SEF, and MED were then calculated. Anesthetic depth was evaluated by use of the VAS. Cardiovascular and EEG responses to nociceptive stimuli were evaluated for each anesthetic agent.

Results—BIS decreased significantly for the various concentrations of each anesthetic. At equivalent MACs, BIS values were significantly higher during sevoflurane-induced anesthesia than during isoflurane- induced anesthesia. Values of MED and SEF decreased significantly from basal values to 1 MAC of sevoflurane and isoflurane. For both agents, there was good correlation between VAS scores and BIS values and between VAS scores and SEF values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—BIS was useful for predicting changes in anesthetic depth at clinical dosages of inhalant anesthetics. Values of BIS, SEF, and MED were significantly higher during anesthesia induced by administration of sevoflurane than during anesthesia induced by administration of isoflurance at equivalent MACs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:866–873)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To describe clinical findings, diagnosis, treatment, and survival in 18 cats with anemia of suspected immune-mediated origin (ASIMO) and conflicting results using FeLV diagnosis tests, and to suggest an accurate way to assess their FeLV diagnosis.


18 cats.


Medical records from 5 veterinary institutions were retrospectively reviewed to identify cats with ASIMO, positive results on p27 SNAP ELISA, and negative results on pro-virus PCR testing in peripheral blood, in the absence of other identified triggers. Follow-up was recorded from diagnosis to the time of writing, and survival analysis was performed to assess similarities with previous published data.


18 cats were enrolled from referral centers in Spain, Italy, and the United Kingdom. Both peripheral immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA; 12/18) and precursor targeted immune-mediated anemia (PIMA; 6/18) were described. When the SNAP ELISA test was rechecked in patients with disease control, SNAP ELISA positive results had become negative. Two cats had a relapse of the ASIMO, and the FeLV SNAP ELISA tested positive again. Other signs of FeLV disease did not appear in any of these patients despite immunosuppression. 14 cats (14/18 [78%]) were alive at the time of writing, and the mean estimated survival time was 769 days.


This study describes incongruent FeLV results in cats with ASIMO. It supports the necessity to confirm FeLV SNAP ELISA positive results using additional tools, such as pro-virus PCR testing, as different p27 point-of-care and external serological tests may be inconsistent.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association