Objective—To investigate differences in clinical variables among dogs with extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSSs) of various morphologies.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—53 dogs with EHPSSs.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs undergoing preoperative CT angiography of an EHPSS over a 3-year period were reviewed. Analysis was performed to investigate relationships of clinical variables with shunt morphology. Morphologies were analyzed individually as well as in several groups.
Results—Shunt morphologies included 10 splenocaval, 9 splenophrenic, 11 splenoazygos, 10 right gastric-caval, 12 right gastric-caval with a caudal loop, and 1 right gastric-azygos with a caudal loop. Several biochemical variables associated with EHPSS were lowest in dogs with splenocaval shunts. Preoperative clinical signs were more common in dogs that had shunts with vena caval than right azygos vein insertion (36/41 [88%] vs 7/12 [58%]) and insertion caudal to the liver than diaphragmatic insertion (29/32 [91%] vs 14/21 [67%]). Neurologic signs were more common when shunts inserted into the vena cava caudal to the liver than in other locations (21/32 [66%] vs 6/21 [29%]) and were most frequent with splenocaval shunts. Urinary tract signs were more common when shunts had right gastric vein origin than gastrosplenic vein origin (14/23 [61%] vs 10/30 [33%]).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Splenocaval shunts caused more clinical abnormalities than did other shunt morphologies. Results suggested that dogs with shunt insertion in the caudal vena cava, especially caudal to the liver, were most likely to have clinical signs.
Case Description—An 8-year-old 38-kg (84-lb) castrated male German Shepherd Dog cross was evaluated because of respiratory distress secondary to pneumothorax (detected radio-graphically prior to referral).
Clinical Findings—CT of the thorax confirmed the presence of pneumothorax and revealed pulmonary blebs without evidence of infiltrative pulmonary changes. A tentative diagnosis of primary spontaneous pneumothorax was made.
Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory median sternotomy revealed emphysematous changes along the margins of all lung lobes, with the ventral margins of the left cranial, right cranial, and right middle lung lobes most affected. Partial lobectomies of the ventral aspects of these lobes were performed. Histologic examination of tissue samples from the lung lobes revealed diffuse smooth muscle hypertrophy of the terminal and respiratory bronchioles with moderate numbers of peribronchiolar eosinophils. Mucus plugs and mucous cell metaplasia within the airway epithelium were also evident. After surgery, clinical signs resolved and the dog was discharged from the hospital 2 days later. Eight months after surgery, the dog developed a mild cough, and treatment with prednisolone (tapering dosage starting at 0.5 mg/kg [0.023 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) was initiated. Dosage reduction resulted in recurrence of coughing; however, with continued prednisolone treatment at a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg, PO, once daily, the dog was not coughing at 10 months after surgery.
Clinical Relevance—Reactive bronchopneumopathy should be included as a differential diagnosis for spontaneous pneumothorax in dogs.
Objective—To determine correlation between results
of computed tomography (CT) versus pathologic
examination for determining the volume percentage
of affected lung in mice experimentally infected with
Animals—30 adult mice.
Procedure—After helical CT scans on day 0, mice
were inoculated intranasally with P pneumotropica.
Repeat CT scans were performed on days 1, 2, 3, 4,
6, 8, 10, and 13. Regions of interest (affected areas)
were manually drawn on the CT images, and percentage
volume of normal lung was calculated by use
of 3 methods: first-day volume, largest volume, and
last-day volume. Three mice were euthanatized for
pathologic evaluation after each scan day. The lungs
were examined with a dissection microscope, and
lesion scores were assigned on the basis of percentage
volume of pneumonia. Correlation coefficients
comparing results of the 3 CT methods with results
of gross examination were calculated.
Results—Lung abnormalities were detected via dissection
microscopy by postinfection day 2 and via CT
by days 2 or 3. Correlation coefficients for the 3 CT
methods of analysis, compared with pathologic findings,
were 0.7 via first-day lung volume, 0.8 via
largest lung volume, and 0.8 via last-day lung volume.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of CT
correlated well with results of dissection microscopy
for estimating percentage volume of lung affected by
pneumonia in mice experimentally infected with
P pneumotropica. This method may be useful for longitudinal
studies of pneumonia in mice. (Am J Vet Res
To evaluate effects of laparoscopic-assisted incisional gastropexy (LAIG) on gastric motility in dogs by use of a wireless motility device (WMD).
10 healthy client-owned large or giant-breed dogs.
10 dogs owned by clients interested in prophylactic LAIG were enrolled. To determine effects of LAIG on gastrointestinal motility in dogs during the nonfed state, each dog was evaluated by use of a noninvasive WMD before and > 4 weeks after LAIG. All dogs underwent LAIG, with or without concurrent elective gonadectomy. Data obtained before and after LAIG were analyzed by use of proprietary software to determine the gastric emptying time, small bowel transit time, large bowel transit time, whole bowel transit time, and motility index.
No changes in variables were detected between measurements obtained before and after prophylactic LAIG.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
In this study, prophylactic LAIG did not have an effect on gastrointestinal motility. The WMD was tolerated well by all dogs and appeared to be a safe and effective method for evaluating gastrointestinal motility in this population of dogs.
To describe veterinary house officers’ perceptions of dimensions of well-being during postgraduate training and to identify potential areas for targeted intervention.
303 house officers.
A 62-item questionnaire was generated by use of an online platform and sent to house officers at participating institutions in October 2020. Responses were analyzed for trends and associations between selected variables.
239 residents, 45 rotating interns, and 19 specialty interns responded to the survey. The majority of house officers felt that their training program negatively interfered with their exercise habits, diet, and social engagement. House officers reported engaging in exercise significantly less during times of clinical responsibility, averaging 1.6 exercise sessions/wk (SD ± 0.8) on clinical duty and 2.4 exercise sessions/wk (SD ± 0.9) when not on clinical duty (P < 0.001). Ninety-four percent of respondents reported experiencing some degree of anxiety regarding their physical health, and 95% of house officers reported feeling some degree of anxiety regarding their current financial situation. Overall, 47% reported that their work-life balance was unsustainable for > 1 year; there was no association between specialty and sustainability of work-life balance. Most house officers were satisfied with their current training program, level of clinical responsibility, and mentorship.
Veterinary house officers demonstrated a poor balance between the demands of postgraduate training and maintenance of personal health. Thoughtful interventions are needed to support the well-being of veterinary house officers.