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Objective—To determine the effects of raw meat–based diets with and without inulin or yeast cell-wall (YCW) extract on macronutrient digestibility, blood cell counts, serum metabolite concentrations, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations in healthy adult dogs.

Animals—6 healthy adult spayed female dogs (mean ± SD age, 5.5 ± 0.5 years; mean body weight, 8.5 ± 0.5 kg).

Procedures—Dogs were fed each of the following 6 diets for 21 days, the order of which was randomly assigned in a Latin square design: beef control, beef and 1.4% inulin, beef and 1.4% YCW extract, chicken control, chicken and 1.4% inulin, and chicken and 1.4% YCW extract. Each diet trial consisted of a phase for diet adaptation (days 0 to 14) and a phase for measurement of urine and fecal output and content (days 15 to 20). On day 21, food was withheld for blood sample collection. Afterward, the next diet trial began immediately.

Results—All dogs maintained desirable fecal quality characteristics and produced low fecal volume. All diets were highly digestible (protein digestibility > 88%; fat digestibility > 97%). Differences in fermentative end-product concentrations among all diets were minor, but a significant increase in fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations was evident when dogs were fed beef-based diets with inulin and YCW extract. Fecal spermine concentrations were higher with diets containing inulin and YCW extract than with control diets. Blood cell counts and serum metabolite values were within reference limits after each trial. All diets resulted in maintenance of nitrogen balance.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested the raw meat–based diets evaluated were highly digestible in dogs. The increase in fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations achieved when inulin and YCW extract were included may be beneficial to canine health.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To evaluate associations of measures assessed by radiography, 2-D CT, and 3-D CT of the hip joints of immature dogs with osteoarthritis in the same joints at maturity.

ANIMALS 46 hound-type dogs from a colony predisposed to osteoarthritis.

PROCEDURES Images of hip joints (1/dog) were obtained at 16, 32, and 104 weeks of age. Radiographic measures included Norberg angle, distraction index, and osteoarthritis score. Two-dimensional CT measures included acetabular index, percentage of femoral head coverage, and center edge, horizontal toit externe, acetabular anteversion, and ventral, dorsal, and horizontal acetabular sector angles. Three-dimensional CT measures were femoral head and neck volume, femoral neck angle, and femoral head and neck radius. Differences among measures at 16 and 32 weeks in dogs with different osteoarthritis scores at later time points, relationships among variables at each time point, and relationships of single and combined measures with the presence of osteoarthritis at 104 weeks were evaluated.

RESULTS The 16- and 32-week distraction index, center edge angle, dorsal acetabular sector angle, horizontal acetabular sector angle, percentage of femoral head coverage, acetabular index, and Norberg angle and the 32-week femoral neck angle varied significantly with osteoarthritis severity at 104 weeks. Presence of osteoarthritis in mature dogs was most strongly associated with 16-week combined measures of distraction index and center edge angle and 32-week combined measures of dorsal acetabular sector angle and Norberg angle.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Changes in hip joint morphology associated with radiographic signs of osteoarthritis were detectable as early as 16 weeks of age and varied with osteoarthritis severity in adult dogs. The use of combined hip joint measures may improve early identification of dogs predisposed to hip joint osteoarthritis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate the safety of repeated applications of permethrin concentrations (0% control, 1.5%, 5%, and 10%) to the necks and faces of horses and assess the efficacy and longevity of permethrin as an equine tick repellent.


5 healthy adult Quarter Horses.


Each treatment was applied to the neck of each horse (0.01 m2) 4 times a day, for up to 10 days. An 8-mm biopsy was taken to evaluate postexposure dermal responses. Any treatments that were not withdrawn were applied to a quadrant of the horse’s face 4 times a day, for up to 5 days. For tick bioassays, a treatment was applied to 1 leg of a horse and 5 female blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) were evaluated as “repelled” or “not repelled” by the treatment. The bioassays were repeated up to 5 days, but treatment application took place only on the first day of the experiment.


Histological results of neck biopsies indicated that more repeated exposures or higher concentrations resulted in more dermal damage. Tick bioassays showed that 5% and 10% permethrin had the greatest efficacy and longevity as a tick repellent, but the differences in tick repellency were not significant overall.


While there was a nonsignificant trend of higher permethrin concentrations repelling more ticks with longer-lasting residual repellent effects, higher concentrations also produced greater skin damage after repeated exposures. These opposing findings emphasize the need for better tick prevention and control methods that balance safety and efficacy for the equine community.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research