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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine antinociceptive efficacy, behavioral patterns, and respiratory effects associated with dexmedetomidine administration in ball pythons (Python regius).

ANIMALS 12 ball pythons.

PROCEDURES Antinociception was assessed by applying an infrared heat stimulus to the cranioventral surface of snakes during 2 experiments. Thermal withdrawal latency was measured at 0, 2, and 24 hours after SC injections of dexmedetomidine (0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution and at 0 to 60 minutes after injection of dexmedetomidine (0.1 mg/kg) or saline solution. Behaviors were recorded at 0, 2, and 24 hours after administration of dexmedetomidine (0.1 mg/kg) or saline solution. Tongue flicking, head flinch to the approach of an observer's hand, movement, and righting reflex were scored. Respiratory frequency was measured by use of plethysmography to detect breathing-related movements after injection of dexmedetomidine (0.1 mg/kg) or saline solution.

RESULTS Mean baseline withdrawal latency was 5 to 7 seconds; saline solution did not alter withdrawal latency. Dexmedetomidine increased withdrawal latency by 18 seconds (0.2 mg/kg) and 13 seconds (0.1 mg/kg) above baseline values at 2 hours. Increased withdrawal latency was detected within 15 minutes after dexmedetomidine administration. At 2 hours after injection, there were few differences in behavioral scores. Dexmedetomidine injection depressed respiratory frequency by 55% to 70%, compared with results for saline solution, but snakes continued to breathe without prolonged apnea.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dexmedetomidine increased noxious thermal withdrawal latency without causing excessive sedation. Therefore, dexmedetomidine may be a useful analgesic drug in ball pythons and other snake species.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the incidence of complications in the intraoperative and postoperative period for dogs undergoing nephrectomy for renal disease.

ANIMALS

69 dogs.

METHODS

Medical records of dogs undergoing nephrectomies for renal disease were reviewed for signalment, date of surgery, results of blood analyses, and intra- and postoperative complications. Long-term follow-up was obtained via client telephone interview or referring veterinarian medical records. A Fisher exact test was used to assess the relationship between postoperative acute kidney injury and NSAID administration with long-term development of chronic kidney disease.

RESULTS

Complications occurred in 44.9% and 42.6% of dogs in the intraoperative and postoperative periods, respectively. Most of these were lower-grade complications, though a total of 7 dogs died during the postoperative period. An acute kidney injury was diagnosed in 12 dogs postoperatively, with 2 dogs euthanized due to the severity of the injury. Long-term follow-up was available for 53 dogs, with 24 (45.3%) dogs developing chronic kidney disease. Postoperative acute kidney injury (P = .385) and NSAID administration (P = .519) were not statistically associated with the development of chronic kidney disease in this population.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Unilateral nephrectomy is associated with high intraoperative and postoperative complication rates in dogs. Chronic kidney disease was diagnosed in almost 50% of the population with available long-term follow-up.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess factors associated with increased pleural fluid and air evacuation, longer duration of thoracostomy tube usage, and longer hospitalization in dogs and cats following surgery for thoracic neoplasms.

ANIMALS

62 dogs and 10 cats.

METHODS

Medical records were reviewed for dogs and cats undergoing thoracic surgeries between August 1, 2019, and June 30, 2023, for resection of suspected neoplasia in which a thoracostomy tube was placed. Data collected included patient signalment, type of procedure performed, histologic diagnosis of the primary mass removed, volume of fluid and air evacuated from the thoracostomy tube, and time in hospital.

RESULTS

Median sternotomy was associated with increased total fluid evacuation (median, 12.1 mL/kg; IQR, 15.4 mL/kg; P = .012), whereas rib resection was associated with increased total air evacuation (median, 2.1 mL/kg; IQR, 13.6 mL/kg; P = .06). The presence of preoperative pleural effusion was associated with higher total fluid evacuation (20.6 mL/kg; IQR, 32.1 mL/kg; P = .009), longer duration with a thoracostomy tube in place (42.5 hours; IQR, 41.9 hours; P = .027), and longer hospitalization period (61 hours; IQR, 52.8 hours; P = .025). Cats had a thoracostomy tube in place for a longer time compared to dogs (median, 42.6 hours; IQR, 23.5 hours; P = .043).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Animals undergoing median sternotomy and rib resection may be expected to have higher fluid and air volumes, respectively, evacuated postoperatively. This often leads to an increased duration of thoracostomy tube usage and a longer period of hospitalization.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objectives

To determine attitudes of veterinarians, animal control directors, and county prosecutors in Michigan toward enforcement of state animal cruelty legislation and to identify factors associated with whether veterinarians would report suspected cases of animal cruelty.

Design

Survey.

Sample Population

Questionnaires were sent to 1,146 Michigan Veterinary Medical Association member veterinarians, 139 animal control directors, and 83 county prosecutors in Michigan.

Results

740 (65%) veterinarians, 70 (50%) animal control directors, and 43 (52%) prosecutors responded. Six hundred forty six of 735 (88%) veterinarians reported having treated an animal that they believed had been a victim of animal cruelty, but only 192 of 719 (27%) had ever reported a case of animal cruelty, and only 217 of 734 (30%) had ever testified in an animal cruelty case. Logistic regression analysis of responses revealed that the only factor associated with whether veterinarians would report cases of suspected animal cruelty was the potential reactions of the involved clients to the accusation of animal cruelty. Veterinarians who rated reaction of the involved client as important, very important, or essential to their decision whether to report a case of animal cruelty were less likely to report such cases than were veterinarians who rated potential client reaction as somewhat important or unimportant.

Clinical Implications

Concern about potential client reaction was the most important factor in whether veterinarians would report cases of suspected animal cruelty. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1521–1523)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association