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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of anatomic location, histologic processing, and sample size on shrinkage of excised canine skin samples.

SAMPLE Skin samples from 15 canine cadavers.

PROCEDURES Elliptical samples of the skin, underlying subcutaneous fat, and muscle fascia were collected from the head, hind limb, and lumbar region of each cadaver. Two samples (10 mm and 30 mm) were collected at each anatomic location of each cadaver (one from the left side and the other from the right side). Measurements of length, width, depth, and surface area were collected prior to excision (P1) and after fixation in neutral-buffered 10% formalin for 24 to 48 hours (P2). Length and width were also measured after histologic processing (P3).

RESULTS Length and width decreased significantly at all anatomic locations and for both sample sizes at each processing stage. Hind limb samples had the greatest decrease in length, compared with results for samples obtained from other locations, across all processing stages for both sample sizes. The 30-mm samples had a greater percentage change in length and width between P1 and P2 than did the 10-mm samples. Histologic processing (P2 to P3) had a greater effect on the percentage shrinkage of 10-mm samples. For all locations and both sample sizes, percentage change between P1 and P3 ranged from 24.0% to 37.7% for length and 18.0% to 22.8% for width.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Histologic processing, anatomic location, and sample size affected the degree of shrinkage of a canine skin sample from excision to histologic assessment.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe a modified approach to closed anal sacculectomy and report the short-term outcomes of dogs that underwent the procedure for treatment of neoplasia.

ANIMALS

16 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of 1 referral hospital were reviewed to identify dogs that underwent modified closed anal sacculectomy for treatment of anal sac neoplasia between January 2018 and September 2020. Data collected included signalment, examination and diagnostic imaging findings, surgical details, intraoperative and postoperative complications, cytologic and histologic findings, adjuvant treatments, duration of follow-up, and short-term outcome.

RESULTS

15 dogs had apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma, and 1 had a collision tumor. No dogs had intraoperative complications; 1 dog had a minor postoperative complication (paraparesis) that resolved. The median duration of postoperative follow-up was 286 days (range, 67 to 777 days). One dog had confirmed local disease recurrence 290 days after surgery, and 1 had suspected local disease recurrence 203 days after surgery and was euthanized because of systemic disease progression.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The modified closed anal sacculectomy was well tolerated in this sample of dogs, with minimal short-term complications. This study provided evidence to justify evaluation of the procedure in a larger number of dogs and assessment of the effects of procedural modifications on postoperative complication rates and time to local recurrence.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To provide a video tutorial on how to perform an alternate method for urethral catheterization, the 2-catheter technique.

ANIMALS

Small female cats and dogs that are too small for concurrent digital palpation (generally < 10 kg).

METHODS

A larger red rubber catheter (18 Fr in dogs, and 10 Fr in cats) is gently fed into the vaginal canal and reflected dorsally, then a smaller urethral catheter can be introduced ventrally, angling downwards at a 45° angle, into the urethral orifice for urinary catheterization.

RESULTS

The 2-catheter method is a useful alternative in petite female cats and dogs to improve rates of successful catheterization.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The inability to perform concurrent digital palpation in petite female dogs and cats can make urinary catheterization more challenging due to the inability to palpate locoregional anatomic landmarks and without the added manipulation of the catheter tip during placement. Using a second, larger catheter to occlude the vaginal canal similarly to how a finger would during digital palpation can aid in successful catheterization in this challenging subset of veterinary patients.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report clinical features and outcomes of cats undergoing either stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) or surgical excision for the treatment of intracranial meningioma.

ANIMALS

61 client-owned cats.

METHODS

Medical records were retrospectively reviewed of cats with intracranial meningiomas that were treated with surgical removal and/or SRT between 2005 and 2017. Signalment, clinical signs, duration of clinical signs, diagnostic imaging reports, histopathology reports, treatment protocol, complications, recurrence or progression, and survival time were obtained from the medical record and through follow-up phone calls.

RESULTS

Of the 61 patients, 46 had surgery, 14 had SRT, and 1 had surgery followed by SRT for initial treatment. Significantly more cats that underwent surgery had peritreatment complications compared to the SRT group (P < .0001). Cats that received surgery initially had a significantly longer median survival time (MST) of 1,345 days compared to the MST of 339 days for the SRT cats (P = .002). Fourteen (30%) cats in the surgery group and 4 cats in the SRT group (28%) had MRI- or CT-confirmed tumor regrowth or new tumor growth (P = 1.00). Five cases that had SRT for subsequent recurrence had an MST of 700 days (range, 335 to 1,460 days) after the last treatment.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

SRT proved to be a safe, alternative treatment option for feline patients with intracranial meningiomas; however, the survival times with surgery alone were significantly longer. SRT for the treatment of recurrence following initial surgery may show promising results.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the incidence of complications in the intraoperative and postoperative period for dogs undergoing nephrectomy for renal disease.

ANIMALS

69 dogs.

METHODS

Medical records of dogs undergoing nephrectomies for renal disease were reviewed for signalment, date of surgery, results of blood analyses, and intra- and postoperative complications. Long-term follow-up was obtained via client telephone interview or referring veterinarian medical records. A Fisher exact test was used to assess the relationship between postoperative acute kidney injury and NSAID administration with long-term development of chronic kidney disease.

RESULTS

Complications occurred in 44.9% and 42.6% of dogs in the intraoperative and postoperative periods, respectively. Most of these were lower-grade complications, though a total of 7 dogs died during the postoperative period. An acute kidney injury was diagnosed in 12 dogs postoperatively, with 2 dogs euthanized due to the severity of the injury. Long-term follow-up was available for 53 dogs, with 24 (45.3%) dogs developing chronic kidney disease. Postoperative acute kidney injury (P = .385) and NSAID administration (P = .519) were not statistically associated with the development of chronic kidney disease in this population.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Unilateral nephrectomy is associated with high intraoperative and postoperative complication rates in dogs. Chronic kidney disease was diagnosed in almost 50% of the population with available long-term follow-up.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare clinical signs, laboratory test results, and imaging findings between dogs with suspected anaphylaxis and dogs with sepsis.

DESIGN Retrospective case-case study.

ANIMALS 10 dogs with suspected anaphylaxis and 22 dogs with confirmed sepsis that met the criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

PROCEDURES Medical records for dogs in each group were reviewed and data extracted regarding signalment; reason for hospital admission; physical examination findings; results of CBC, serum biochemical analysis, coagulation testing, cytologic examination, and microbial culture; and imaging reports.

RESULTS All dogs in the anaphylaxis group fulfilled the criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Dogs in both groups had gastrointestinal signs, lethargy, mentation change, and bleeding abnormalities. Dogs with suspected anaphylaxis had a significantly higher eosinophil count and serum alanine aminotransferase activity and lower blood pH than dogs with sepsis. Dogs with sepsis had a significantly higher band neutrophil count, serum globulins concentration, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity and lower serum glucose concentration. Dogs in both groups had intracavitary free fluid and ultrasonographic findings of thickened intestines, gas or fluid-filled intestines, and a thickened gallbladder wall.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Clinical signs, laboratory values, and imaging findings may be similar in dogs with sepsis or anaphylaxis. Given the marked difference in prognosis and treatment, early differentiation is important. Anaphylaxis should be considered if a septic nidus cannot be identified, and supportive care should be considered for such patients.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors for urolithiasis in dogs with congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSSs) and to determine whether portoazygos shunts were associated with increased risk of urolithiasis at the initial evaluation for EHPSS.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—Dogs (n = 95) with EHPSSs confirmed via CT angiography or surgery.

Procedures—Medical records from 1999 to 2013 were reviewed. Variables of interest included signalment, previous medical management, and results of urinalysis, urolith analyses, and diagnostic imaging. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses for assessment of risk factors for urolithiasis at the time of initial EHPSS evaluation were performed.

Results—The dogs’ median age was 0.9 years (range, 0.2 to 12.6 years). Among the 95 dogs, 27 (28.4%) and 68 (71.6%) had portoazygos and portocaval shunts, respectively. Urinalysis was performed for 79 (83.2%) dogs, 29 (36.7%) of which had crystalluria (mainly ammonium urate and struvite crystals). Uroliths were present in 34 of 95 (35.8%) dogs; 16 of 17 uroliths analyzed were composed of ammonium urate. Portoazygos shunts were not associated with significantly increased odds of urolithiasis at the time of the initial evaluation for EHPSS. However, the odds of urolithiasis was significantly increased for male dogs, older dogs, and dogs that received previous medical treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with EHPSS, shunt morphology was not associated with increased odds of urolithiasis at the initial evaluation. Male dogs, older dogs, and dogs having received medical management for EHPSS prior to initial evaluation should be considered at increased risk for development of urolithiasis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the success rates for urethral catheterization in clinical patients using the traditional and 2-catheter techniques when placed by personnel of all experience levels.

ANIMALS

38 female cats and dogs weighing less than 10 kg were prospectively enrolled.

METHODS

Enrolled animals were randomized to have a urethral catheter placed by the traditional technique or the 2-catheter method under sedation or general anesthesia. Any qualified hospital personnel of any experience level were allowed to place the catheter. If after 5 minutes the animal was not successfully catheterized, the alternate method was performed. The previous experience of the catheter placer, animal signalment, animal condition that necessitated catheter placement, time to successful placement, and which technique was successful was recorded.

RESULTS

The 2-catheter technique was more successful than the traditional method (60.5% and 34.2%, respectively) for urethral catheterization when used by a variety of hospital personnel. The 2-catheter technique was successful in 63.3% of dogs and 66.6% of cats, while the traditional method was successful in 36.6% of dogs and 33.3% of cats. Eight of 9 (88.9%) novice catheter placers that placed their first urinary catheter in this study succeeded with the 2-catheter technique and only 1 was successful with the traditional method.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The 2-catheter technique has a higher rate of success for placement of female urinary catheters in small patients that are unable to have concurrent digital palpation. This technique may also be helpful in the inexperienced catheter placer population to aid in guidance into the urethral papilla.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Thromboelastography (TEG) is a whole blood assay that yields global assessment of hemostasis, as it evaluates clot time, strength, and kinematics of clot formation and lysis. The main objective was to describe preoperative TEG findings in dogs that had an adrenalectomy performed and, secondarily, to describe TEG findings in the dogs with or without hyperadrenocorticism (HAC).

ANIMALS

30 dogs that had preoperative TEG and adrenalectomy performed.

METHODS

Medical records between 2018 and 2022 were reviewed. Signalment, diagnostic data, and perioperative treatment were abstracted.

RESULTS

53% (16/30) of the dogs were hypercoagulable, and none were hypocoagulable. Based on histopathology, 6 of 9 dogs with adenocarcinoma were hypercoagulable, 4 of 8 with pheochromocytoma were hypercoagulable, and 6 of 10 with adenoma were hypercoagulable. None of the 3 dogs with other histopathologic diagnoses or combinations of diagnoses (adrenocortical hyperplasia, poorly differentiated sarcoma, and both adrenocortical adenocarcinoma and pheochromocytoma) were hypercoagulable. Of the 14 dogs tested preoperatively for HAC, 4 of 8 HAC dogs were hypercoagulable and 2 of 6 non-HAC dogs were hypercoagulable.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The present report describes for the first time TEG findings for dogs undergoing adrenalectomy and suggests that the majority of dogs with adrenal neoplasia are hypercoagulable based on TEG results.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report the survival times in dogs diagnosed with adrenal tumors with vascular or soft tissue invasion that did not undergo adrenalectomy.

ANIMALS

Retrospective case series of 32 client-owned dogs.

METHODS

The medical records of a referral veterinary hospital were reviewed to identify dogs that were diagnosed with an invasive adrenal mass and did not undergo adrenalectomy between January 2013 and December 2022. Data collected included signalment, examination findings, and diagnostic results from the initial presentation. Descriptive statistics were calculated to summarize dog signalment information, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed for calculation of median survival time.

RESULTS

Most dogs (n = 28) had vascular invasion, primarily into the caudal vena cava. Surgery was offered but not pursued due to perceived risk of sudden death (n = 5), risk of hemorrhage (4), or concurrent diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (1). Only 1 dog pursued stereotactic body radiation therapy, and 1 was prescribed toceranib phosphate (Palladia). Of these 32 dogs, 30 (93.8%) died or were euthanized and 2 (6.2%) dogs survived. The median follow-up time was 49 days (range, 0 to 1,910 days). The median survival time was 50 days (95% CI, 4 to 194 days). The most common cause of death or euthanasia was hemoabdomen (n = 8).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Nonsurgical management of invasive adrenal tumors was associated with short survival times in this case series.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association