OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of anatomic location, histologic processing, and sample size on shrinkage of excised canine skin samples.
SAMPLE Skin samples from 15 canine cadavers.
PROCEDURES Elliptical samples of the skin, underlying subcutaneous fat, and muscle fascia were collected from the head, hind limb, and lumbar region of each cadaver. Two samples (10 mm and 30 mm) were collected at each anatomic location of each cadaver (one from the left side and the other from the right side). Measurements of length, width, depth, and surface area were collected prior to excision (P1) and after fixation in neutral-buffered 10% formalin for 24 to 48 hours (P2). Length and width were also measured after histologic processing (P3).
RESULTS Length and width decreased significantly at all anatomic locations and for both sample sizes at each processing stage. Hind limb samples had the greatest decrease in length, compared with results for samples obtained from other locations, across all processing stages for both sample sizes. The 30-mm samples had a greater percentage change in length and width between P1 and P2 than did the 10-mm samples. Histologic processing (P2 to P3) had a greater effect on the percentage shrinkage of 10-mm samples. For all locations and both sample sizes, percentage change between P1 and P3 ranged from 24.0% to 37.7% for length and 18.0% to 22.8% for width.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Histologic processing, anatomic location, and sample size affected the degree of shrinkage of a canine skin sample from excision to histologic assessment.
To describe a modified approach to closed anal sacculectomy and report the short-term outcomes of dogs that underwent the procedure for treatment of neoplasia.
16 client-owned dogs.
Medical records of 1 referral hospital were reviewed to identify dogs that underwent modified closed anal sacculectomy for treatment of anal sac neoplasia between January 2018 and September 2020. Data collected included signalment, examination and diagnostic imaging findings, surgical details, intraoperative and postoperative complications, cytologic and histologic findings, adjuvant treatments, duration of follow-up, and short-term outcome.
15 dogs had apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma, and 1 had a collision tumor. No dogs had intraoperative complications; 1 dog had a minor postoperative complication (paraparesis) that resolved. The median duration of postoperative follow-up was 286 days (range, 67 to 777 days). One dog had confirmed local disease recurrence 290 days after surgery, and 1 had suspected local disease recurrence 203 days after surgery and was euthanized because of systemic disease progression.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The modified closed anal sacculectomy was well tolerated in this sample of dogs, with minimal short-term complications. This study provided evidence to justify evaluation of the procedure in a larger number of dogs and assessment of the effects of procedural modifications on postoperative complication rates and time to local recurrence.
To provide a video tutorial on how to perform an alternate method for urethral catheterization, the 2-catheter technique.
Small female cats and dogs that are too small for concurrent digital palpation (generally < 10 kg).
A larger red rubber catheter (18 Fr in dogs, and 10 Fr in cats) is gently fed into the vaginal canal and reflected dorsally, then a smaller urethral catheter can be introduced ventrally, angling downwards at a 45° angle, into the urethral orifice for urinary catheterization.
The 2-catheter method is a useful alternative in petite female cats and dogs to improve rates of successful catheterization.
The inability to perform concurrent digital palpation in petite female dogs and cats can make urinary catheterization more challenging due to the inability to palpate locoregional anatomic landmarks and without the added manipulation of the catheter tip during placement. Using a second, larger catheter to occlude the vaginal canal similarly to how a finger would during digital palpation can aid in successful catheterization in this challenging subset of veterinary patients.
Objective—To identify risk factors for urolithiasis in dogs with congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSSs) and to determine whether portoazygos shunts were associated with increased risk of urolithiasis at the initial evaluation for EHPSS.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—Dogs (n = 95) with EHPSSs confirmed via CT angiography or surgery.
Procedures—Medical records from 1999 to 2013 were reviewed. Variables of interest included signalment, previous medical management, and results of urinalysis, urolith analyses, and diagnostic imaging. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses for assessment of risk factors for urolithiasis at the time of initial EHPSS evaluation were performed.
Results—The dogs’ median age was 0.9 years (range, 0.2 to 12.6 years). Among the 95 dogs, 27 (28.4%) and 68 (71.6%) had portoazygos and portocaval shunts, respectively. Urinalysis was performed for 79 (83.2%) dogs, 29 (36.7%) of which had crystalluria (mainly ammonium urate and struvite crystals). Uroliths were present in 34 of 95 (35.8%) dogs; 16 of 17 uroliths analyzed were composed of ammonium urate. Portoazygos shunts were not associated with significantly increased odds of urolithiasis at the time of the initial evaluation for EHPSS. However, the odds of urolithiasis was significantly increased for male dogs, older dogs, and dogs that received previous medical treatment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with EHPSS, shunt morphology was not associated with increased odds of urolithiasis at the initial evaluation. Male dogs, older dogs, and dogs having received medical management for EHPSS prior to initial evaluation should be considered at increased risk for development of urolithiasis.
OBJECTIVE To compare clinical signs, laboratory test results, and imaging findings between dogs with suspected anaphylaxis and dogs with sepsis.
DESIGN Retrospective case-case study.
ANIMALS 10 dogs with suspected anaphylaxis and 22 dogs with confirmed sepsis that met the criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome.
PROCEDURES Medical records for dogs in each group were reviewed and data extracted regarding signalment; reason for hospital admission; physical examination findings; results of CBC, serum biochemical analysis, coagulation testing, cytologic examination, and microbial culture; and imaging reports.
RESULTS All dogs in the anaphylaxis group fulfilled the criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Dogs in both groups had gastrointestinal signs, lethargy, mentation change, and bleeding abnormalities. Dogs with suspected anaphylaxis had a significantly higher eosinophil count and serum alanine aminotransferase activity and lower blood pH than dogs with sepsis. Dogs with sepsis had a significantly higher band neutrophil count, serum globulins concentration, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity and lower serum glucose concentration. Dogs in both groups had intracavitary free fluid and ultrasonographic findings of thickened intestines, gas or fluid-filled intestines, and a thickened gallbladder wall.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Clinical signs, laboratory values, and imaging findings may be similar in dogs with sepsis or anaphylaxis. Given the marked difference in prognosis and treatment, early differentiation is important. Anaphylaxis should be considered if a septic nidus cannot be identified, and supportive care should be considered for such patients.
To compare the success rates for urethral catheterization in clinical patients using the traditional and 2-catheter techniques when placed by personnel of all experience levels.
38 female cats and dogs weighing less than 10 kg were prospectively enrolled.
Enrolled animals were randomized to have a urethral catheter placed by the traditional technique or the 2-catheter method under sedation or general anesthesia. Any qualified hospital personnel of any experience level were allowed to place the catheter. If after 5 minutes the animal was not successfully catheterized, the alternate method was performed. The previous experience of the catheter placer, animal signalment, animal condition that necessitated catheter placement, time to successful placement, and which technique was successful was recorded.
The 2-catheter technique was more successful than the traditional method (60.5% and 34.2%, respectively) for urethral catheterization when used by a variety of hospital personnel. The 2-catheter technique was successful in 63.3% of dogs and 66.6% of cats, while the traditional method was successful in 36.6% of dogs and 33.3% of cats. Eight of 9 (88.9%) novice catheter placers that placed their first urinary catheter in this study succeeded with the 2-catheter technique and only 1 was successful with the traditional method.
The 2-catheter technique has a higher rate of success for placement of female urinary catheters in small patients that are unable to have concurrent digital palpation. This technique may also be helpful in the inexperienced catheter placer population to aid in guidance into the urethral papilla.
To evaluate a novel 2-catheter technique for urethral catheterization in female cats and small dogs and compare the time required for and success rates achieved by use of the novel technique versus traditional methods (blind technique in cats and digital palpation in dogs) as performed by personnel (catheter placers [CPs]) with different levels of experience in urinary catheter placement.
2 CPs were board certified in veterinary surgery, 1 of whom had experience with the novel technique, and the other did not. The third CP was a veterinary surgical intern who was unfamiliar with the novel technique. For each animal enrolled in the study, 1 CP performed catheterization with the novel technique and traditional methods. Data recorded included the time required for successful catheterization and whether a successful catheterization was achieved within a 3-minute time limit.
The overall success rates were 79.5% (31/39 animals) with the novel technique and 43.6% (17/39 animals) with traditional methods. Median times for successful catheter placement were 48 seconds for the novel technique and 41 seconds for traditional methods. Among CPs, success rates or times to successful catheter placement did not differ significantly.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Study results suggested that the novel 2-catheter technique for urethral catheterization may be a more efficient option than traditional methods for gaining access to the urinary bladder in cats and small dogs, particularly when patient size limits use of instrumentation or digital palpation.
OBJECTIVE To assess for any association between a history of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and subsequent development of proximal tibial osteosarcoma in dogs.
DESIGN Matched case-control study.
ANIMALS 34 client-owned dogs in which proximal tibial osteosarcoma was diagnosed between January 2005 and December 2012 (cases) and 79 dogs without osteosarcoma, matched 3:1 to cases (when possible) by age, breed, and initial examination date (controls).
PROCEDURES Information on each case and control was collected from the medical records and other sources regarding date of birth, sex and neuter status, body weight, breed, and whether TPLO had been performed ≥ 1 year ago. A multivariable conditional logistic regression model was constructed to evaluate associations of body weight and history of TPLO with the outcome of proximal tibial osteosarcoma in dogs.
RESULTS After adjusting for body weight in the multivariable model, dogs with a history of TPLO were 40 times as likely to develop proximal tibial osteosarcoma as were dogs with no history of TPLO. In addition, each 1-kg (2.2-lb) increase in body weight was associated with an 11% increase in the odds of proximal tibial osteosarcoma.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that dogs with a history of TPLO were at increased risk of developing osteosarcoma of the proximal region of the tibia relative to dogs with no such history. Therefore, it is important for proximal tibial osteosarcoma to be included among the differential diagnoses for new or worsening hind limb lameness in dogs that underwent TPLO ≥ 1 year previously.
To report the short-term and long-term outcomes of dogs that underwent the modified closed and traditional closed anal sacculectomy procedures for the treatment of anal sac neoplasia.
90 client-owned dogs.
The medical records of 2 tertiary referral hospitals were reviewed to identify dogs that underwent anal sacculectomy for treatment of anal sac neoplasia between January 2016 and December 2020. Data collected included signalment and preoperative diagnostic findings. The occurrence of intraoperative and postoperative complications, short-term outcomes, and long-term outcomes were also collected. Descriptive statistics were calculated to summarize dog signalment information, and recurrence, metastasis, and survival proportions were compared between techniques using Fisher exact tests.
35 and 55 dogs, respectively, underwent the modified or traditional closed anal sacculectomy procedure. Minor postoperative complications that resolved with minimal intervention occurred in 5 of 35 (14.3%) modified approach dogs and 12 of 55 (21.8%) traditional approach dogs. Tumor recurrence was confirmed in 8 of 35 (22.9%) modified and 8 of 55 (26.4%) traditional approach dogs and was suspected in 3 of 35 (8.6%) and 6 of 55 (13.2%; P = .68), respectively. Confirmed metastatic disease was identified in 8 of 35 (22.9%) and 14 of 53 (26.4%) modified and traditional approach dogs, respectively, and was suspected in 4 of 35 (11.4%) and 7 of 53 (13.2%). Sixty-three (70%) dogs survived to study conclusion.
No benefits in complication rate or local recurrence were identified in dogs following the modified approach as opposed to the traditional closed anal sacculectomy technique.
To investigate the CT features of cavitary pulmonary lesions and determine their utility to differentiate malignant from benign lesions.
This retrospective study included cases from 5 veterinary medical centers between January 1 2010, and December 31, 2020. Inclusion criteria included having a gas-filled cavitary pulmonary lesion on thoracic CT and definitive diagnosis by either cytology or histopathology. Forty-two animals (27 dogs and 15 cats) were included in this study.
Medical records systems/imaging databases were searched, and cases meeting inclusion criteria were selected. The CT studies were interpreted by a third-year radiology resident, and findings were reviewed by a board-certified veterinary radiologist.
7 of the 13 lesion characteristics investigated were not statistically associated with the final diagnosis of the lesion, whereas 6 were statistically associated. Those that were associated included the presence of intralesional contrast enhancement, type of intralesional contrast enhancement (heterogenous and homogenous analyzed separately), presence of additional nodules, wall thickness of the lesion at its thickest point, and wall thickness at the thinnest point.
Results from the present study showed that thoracic CT imaging of cavitary pulmonary lesions can be used to further refine the list of differential diagnoses. Based on this data set, in lesions that have heterogenous contrast enhancement, additional pulmonary nodules, and wall thickness > 40 mm at their thickest point, it would be reasonable to consider malignant neoplastic disease higher on the list of differentials than other causes.