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- Author or Editor: Laura Bongiovanni x
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CASE DESCRIPTION AS-year-old male Dwarf rabbit and 4-year-old female Mini-Rex rabbit were evaluated because of anorexia and urine scalding of the perineum.
CLINICAL FINDINGS Abdominal radiography revealed a diffuse increase in the opacity of the urinary bladder attributable to urinary sludge. In 1 rabbit, abdominal ultrasonography revealed several mass-like lesions protruding from the mucosal surface into the lumen of the urinary bladder. Rabbits were anesthetized, and cystoscopy was performed with a rigid 2.7-mm, 30° endoscope. Histologic analysis of tissue samples obtained through the cystoscope operating channel revealed findings consistent with polypoid cystitis.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME To remove the urinary sludge from each rabbit, the urinary bladder was filled with sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution and emptied with a gentle massage several times until the ejected fluid was transparent. Rabbits were treated with NSAIDs, antimicrobials (chosen following microbial culture of urine and antimicrobial susceptibility testing), bathing of the perineum, and a low-calcium diet. The male rabbit died of unrelated causes 18 months later; postmortem examination findings confirmed the polypoid cystitis. The female rabbit remained disease free through to last follow-up (12 months after initial evaluation).
CLINICAL RELEVANCE This was the first report of polypoid cystitis in pet rabbits. Although ultrasonographic findings supported this diagnosis, a definitive diagnosis was achieved through cystoscopy and lesion biopsy. Treatments administered were intended to reduce the potential sources of irritation. Research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of the applied interventions and the association between excessive urinary calcium excretion and polyploid cystitis in rabbits.
OBJECTIVE To explore sources of serum aldosterone concentration variability in a population of healthy and diseased ferrets, determine a preliminary 1 -sided reference interval for serum aldosterone concentration in healthy ferrets, and identify a decision limit to differentiate healthy from diseased ferrets on the basis of serum aldosterone concentration.
DESIGN Prospective threshold definition and diagnostic accuracy study.
ANIMALS 78 healthy (n = 56) and diseased (22) ferrets.
PROCEDURES Serum aldosterone concentrations were measured on consecutively admitted ferrets, and an upper reference limit for aldosterone concentrations was established. Sensitivity and specificity of aldosterone concentration cutoffs to differentiate healthy from diseased ferrets were estimated with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.
RESULTS Measurements of serum aldosterone concentrations in the ferrets showed wide variability, with a median concentration of 4.75 pg/mL (interquartile range, 0.55 to 17.9 pg/mL; range, 0.02 to 283.9 pg/mL) and 76% (59/78) of samples having concentrations < 18 pg/mL. Ferrets that were healthy, older, or sexually inactive had significantly lower aldosterone concentrations. The upper limit of the reference interval for healthy ferrets was 13.3 pg/mL (90% confidence interval, 9.9 to 16.9 pg/mL). Analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves indicated that an aldosterone concentration cutoff value of 7.6 pg/mL differentiated healthy ferrets from diseased ferrets with a sensitivity of 72.7% and specificity of 73.2% (area under the curve, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.67 to 0.91).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that high aldosterone concentrations should not be considered diagnostic of primary hyperaldosteronism in ferrets. A need exists to develop better tests to identify primary hyperaldosteronism.