Treatment of orofacial tumors in dogs is associated with high morbidity and reliable prognostic factors are lacking. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCECT) can be used to assess tumor perfusion. The objectives of this study were to describe the perfusion parameters of different types of orofacial tumors and to describe the changes in perfusion parameters during radiotherapy (RT) in a subset of them.
11 dogs with orofacial tumors prospectively recruited.
CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PROCEDURES
All dogs had baseline DCECT to assess blood volume (BV), blood flow (BF), and transit time (TT). Five dogs had repeat DCECT during megavoltage RT.
5 squamous cell carcinomas, 3 sarcomas, 1 melanoma, 1 histiocytic sarcoma, and 1 acanthomatous ameloblastoma were included. Blood volume and BF were higher in squamous cell carcinomas than in sarcomas, although no statistical analysis was performed. At repeat DCECT, 4 dogs showed a reduction in the size of their tumor during RT. Among these dogs, 3 showed an increase in BV and BF and 1 a decrease in these parameters between the baseline and the follow-up DCECT. The only dog whose tumor increased in size between the first and the second DCECT showed a decrease in BV and BF.
Perfusion parameters derived from DCECT were described in a series of dogs with various types of orofacial tumors. The results suggest that epithelial tumors could have higher BV and BF than mesenchymal tumors, although larger sample sizes are needed to support these preliminary findings.
Objective—To identify the most frequent underlying diseases in dogs examined because of dyspnea and determine whether signalment, clinical signs, and duration of clinical signs might help guide assessment of the underlying condition and prognosis.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—229 dogs with dyspnea.
Procedures—Case records of dogs referred for dyspnea were reviewed and grouped according to location or etiology (upper airway, lower respiratory tract, pleural space, cardiac diseases, or obesity and stress). Signalment, clinical signs at initial examination, treatment, and survival time were analyzed.
Results—Upper airway (n = 74 [32%]) and lower respiratory tract (76 [33%]) disease were the most common diagnoses, followed by pleural space (44 [19%]) and cardiac (27 [12%]) diseases. Dogs with upper airway and pleural space disease were significantly younger than dogs with lower respiratory tract and cardiac diseases. Dogs with lower respiratory tract and associated systemic diseases were significantly less likely to be discharged from the hospital. Dogs with diseases that were treated surgically had a significantly better outcome than did medically treated patients, which were significantly more likely to be examined on an emergency basis with short duration of clinical signs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs examined because of dyspnea, young dogs may be examined more frequently with breed-associated upper respiratory tract obstruction or pleural space disease after trauma, whereas older dogs may be seen more commonly with progressive lower respiratory tract or acquired cardiac diseases. Nontraumatic acute onset dyspnea is often associated with a poor prognosis, but stabilization, especially in patients with cardiac disease, is possible. Obesity can be an important contributing or exacerbating factor in dyspneic dogs.