Objective—To identify common errors in film and digital radiographs provided by referring veterinarians and determine the effect of such errors on the perceived diagnostic quality of image sets.
Sample—135 sets of radiographic images acquired by referring veterinarians for client-owned small animals evaluated at a university hospital.
Procedures—Sets of radiographs were prospectively collected and evaluated for proper performance of various radiographic technical variables including exposure, collimation, positioning, inclusion of all appropriate views, presence of artifacts, radiation safety, and labeling. Sets of radiographs were subjectively determined to be of diagnostic or nondiagnostic quality by 2 evaluators.
Results—The variables exposure, correct positioning, absence of artifacts, and acquisition of all appropriate views were significantly associated with a determination of diagnostic quality for radiograph sets. Correct patient labeling, radiation safety, and x-ray beam centering and collimation were not associated with a determination of diagnostic quality for radiograph sets. The number of categories with errors was significantly associated with identification of radiograph sets as having diagnostic or nondiagnostic quality. Digital radiographs had a significantly lower number of image artifacts and significantly higher frequency of proper labeling versus film radiographs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested the technical variables proper exposure, proper positioning, absence of artifacts, and acquisition of all appropriate views were important for acquisition of sets of radiographs of high diagnostic quality. Identification of these errors and adjustment of radiographic technique to eliminate such errors would aid veterinarians in obtaining radiographs of high diagnostic quality and may reduce misinterpretation.
Objective—To compare the detection of pulmonary nodules by use of 3-view thoracic radiography and CT in dogs with confirmed neoplasia.
Design—Prospective case series.
Animals—33 dogs of various breeds.
Procedures—3 interpreters independently evaluated 3-view thoracic radiography images. The location and size of pulmonary nodules were recorded. Computed tomographic scans of the thorax were obtained and evaluated by a single interpreter. The location, size, margin, internal architecture, and density of pulmonary nodules were recorded. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated for thoracic radiography (with CT as the gold standard).
Results—21 of 33 (64%) dogs had pulmonary nodules or masses detected on CT. Of the dogs that had positive CT findings, 17 of 21 (81 %) had pulmonary nodules or masses detected on radiographs by at least 1 interpreter. Sensitivity of radiography ranged from 71 % to 95%, and specificity ranged from 67% to 92%. Radiography had a positive predictive value of 83% to 94% and a negative predictive value of 65% to 89%. The 4 dogs that were negative for nodules on thoracic radiography but positive on CT were all large-breed to giant-breed dogs with osteosarcoma.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CT was more sensitive than radiography for detection of pulmonary nodules. This was particularly evident in large-breed to giant-breed dogs. Thoracic CT is recommended in large-breed to giant-breed dogs with osteosarcoma if the detection of pulmonary nodules will change treatment.
Objective—To determine correlation between results
of computed tomography (CT) versus pathologic
examination for determining the volume percentage
of affected lung in mice experimentally infected with
Animals—30 adult mice.
Procedure—After helical CT scans on day 0, mice
were inoculated intranasally with P pneumotropica.
Repeat CT scans were performed on days 1, 2, 3, 4,
6, 8, 10, and 13. Regions of interest (affected areas)
were manually drawn on the CT images, and percentage
volume of normal lung was calculated by use
of 3 methods: first-day volume, largest volume, and
last-day volume. Three mice were euthanatized for
pathologic evaluation after each scan day. The lungs
were examined with a dissection microscope, and
lesion scores were assigned on the basis of percentage
volume of pneumonia. Correlation coefficients
comparing results of the 3 CT methods with results
of gross examination were calculated.
Results—Lung abnormalities were detected via dissection
microscopy by postinfection day 2 and via CT
by days 2 or 3. Correlation coefficients for the 3 CT
methods of analysis, compared with pathologic findings,
were 0.7 via first-day lung volume, 0.8 via
largest lung volume, and 0.8 via last-day lung volume.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of CT
correlated well with results of dissection microscopy
for estimating percentage volume of lung affected by
pneumonia in mice experimentally infected with
P pneumotropica. This method may be useful for longitudinal
studies of pneumonia in mice. (Am J Vet Res
Case Description—An approximately 5-year-old sexually intact male alpaca was evaluated because of a right-sided maxillary mass that had recurred after previous surgical debulking.
Clinical Findings—Clinical, radiographic, and CT examination revealed an approximately 1.5-cm-diameter soft tissue mass associated with expansile osteolysis of the maxillary alveolar bone, beginning at the level of the right maxillary third premolar tooth extending caudally to the level of the rostral roots of the second molar tooth.
Treatment and Outcome—Right partial maxillectomy was performed, and histologic examination revealed an incompletely excised fibrosarcoma with osseous metaplasia. External beam radiation therapy to the tumor bed was initiated 1 month after surgery. Computerized planning was performed, and a total radiation dose of 48 Gy was prescribed in eleven 4.4-Gy fractions. Follow-up CT evaluations 6 and 58 weeks after radiation therapy was completed revealed no evidence of tumor recurrence. No clinical evidence of tumor recurrence was detected through 110 weeks after radiation therapy.
Clinical Relevance—The oral fibrosarcoma in the alpaca described here was successfully treated with surgical excision and adjuvant radiation therapy, resulting in excellent quality of life of the treated animal.