Objective—To estimate prevalence of intestinal nematode parasitism among pet dogs in the United States and characterize risk factors for infection.
Design—Retrospective period prevalence survey.
Animals—1,213,061 dogs examined at 547 private veterinary hospitals in 44 states from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2006.
Procedures—Data were obtained from electronic medical records of all dogs that had at least 1 fecal flotation test. Risk factors for intestinal nematode parasitism were identified by means of multivariable logistic regression analysis.
Results—2,785,248 fecal flotation tests were performed during the study period. When results for only the first test in each dog were considered, prevalences of Toxocara, Ancylostoma, and Trichuris parasitism were 5.04%, 4.50%, and 0.81%, respectively. Dogs < 0.5 years old had higher odds of Toxocara and Ancylostoma parasitism, compared with dogs > 5.0 years old; sexually intact male and female dogs had higher odds of parasitism, compared with spayed female dogs; toy dogs had lower odds of parasitism, compared with dogs in other breed groups; and dogs living in the mountain region had lower odds of parasitism, compared with dogs living in other regions.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that age, body weight, sex, breed, and geographic region were risk factors for intestinal nematode parasitism among pet dogs in the United States.
Objective—To describe epidemiologic features of pet
evacuation failure after a hazardous chemical spill in
which residents had no warning and only a few hours
notice to evacuate.
Sample Population—Pet-owning households that
evacuated from a hazardous chemical spill with (n =
119) or without (122) their pets.
Procedures—Evacuees were surveyed by mail.
Results—261 of 433 (60.3%) dogs and cats in 241
households were not evacuated. Of the 241 households,
119 (49.4%) evacuated with their pets, 98
(40.7%) evacuated without them but later attempted
to rescue them, and 24 (10.0%) neither evacuated
their pets nor attempted to rescue them. Pet evacuation
failure was most common in households that
thought the evacuated area was safe for pets. Risk of
pet evacuation failure increased in households with
many animals, low pet attachment and commitment
scores, and low levels of preparedness. Cat evacuation
failure was associated with not having cat carriers.
Nearly 80% of households that evacuated with
their pets found accommodation with friends and
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pet evacuation
failure was common and jeopardized pets' health
and well-being. Logistical challenges to transporting
pets were substantial contributors to pet evacuation
failure, whereas not knowing where to house a pet
was only a minor concern. Most pet owners seemed
self-reliant and acted appropriately towards their pets.
Such self-reliant behavior by pet owners should be
encouraged prior to disasters as part of an evacuation
plan for households. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;
Objectives—To determine whether aqueous humor
flare, measured by use of laser flaremetry, was proportional
to aqueous humor protein concentration and
to use laser flaremetry to evaluate disruption of the
blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) in cats.
Animals—30 healthy adult cats.
Procedure—Laser flaremetry values for all eyes were
compared with aqueous humor protein concentrations
determined by use of a Coomassie blue microprotein
assay. Laser flaremetry was then performed
on both eyes before (0 hours) and 4, 8, and 26 hours
after initiation of topical application of 2% pilocarpine
(q 8 h) to 1 eye of 9 cats or paracentesis of the anterior
chamber of 1 eye of 8 cats. Intraocular pressure
and pupil size were also determined. Aqueous humor
protein concentration was extrapolated from flare values
by use of linear regression.
Results—There was a linear relationship between
flare values and aqueous humor protein concentrations.
Topical application of 2% pilocarpine and paracentesis
of the anterior chamber caused a breakdown
of the BAB that was detected by use of laser flaremetry.
The highest mean flare readings after application
of pilocarpine or paracentesis were 24.4 and 132.8
pc/ms, respectively, which corresponded to aqueous
humor protein concentrations of 85.5 and 434.9
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Paracentesis of
the anterior chamber resulted in a more severe breakdown
of the BAB in cats than topical application of 2%
pilocarpine. Laser flaremetry may be a useful clinical
method to detect increases in aqueous flare and,
hence, disruptions of the BAB in cats. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To determine the effect of vaccination on
serum concentrations of total and antigen-specific IgE
Animals—20 female Beagles.
Procedure—Groups of 5 dogs each were vaccinated
repeatedly between 8 weeks and 4 years of age with
a multivalent and rabies vaccine, a multivalent vaccine
only, or a rabies vaccine only. A fourth group of 5 dogs
served as unvaccinated controls. Serum concentrations
of total immunoglobulins and antigen-specific
IgE were determined following vaccination.
Results—The multivalent vaccine had little effect
on serum total IgE concentrations. The concentration
of IgE increased slightly following vaccination
for rabies at 16 weeks and 1 year of age and
increased greatly after vaccination at 2 and 3 years
of age in most dogs, with a distinct variation
between individual dogs. Vaccination had no effect
on serum concentrations of IgA, IgG, and IgM as
measured at 2 and 3 years of age. The rabies vaccine
contained aluminum adjuvant in contrast to the
multivalent vaccine. An increase of IgE that was
reactive with vaccine antigens, including bovine
serum albumin and bovine fibronectin, was detected
in some of the dogs vaccinated for rabies. There
was no significant correlation between serum concentrations
of total IgE and antigen-specific IgE following
vaccination. Serum total IgE concentration
rapidly returned to preimmunization concentrations
in most dogs, but high concentrations of antigenspecific
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vaccination of
dogs for rabies increases serum concentrations of total
IgE and induces IgE specific for vaccine antigens, including
tissue culture residues. Vaccination history should be
considered in the interpretation of serum total IgE concentrations.
(Am J Vet Res 2002;63:611–616)
To characterize patterns of dog and cat ownership and veterinary service use among Latino dog and cat owners with various degrees of English-language proficiency.
Cross-sectional telephone survey.
Data from 393 Latino pet owners.
Telephone surveys were conducted with Latino dog and cat owners from a random sample of US households to determine the number of dogs and cats owned, factors associated with veterinary service use, and satisfaction with veterinary care.
393 of 1,026 (38.3%) respondents were pet owners. Two hundred fifty-nine of 330 (78.5%) dog owners and 70 of 115 (60.9%) cat owners reported taking their pet to the veterinarian in the past 12 months, most commonly for vaccination or examination or because of illness. Respondents were most satisfied with veterinary care provided, least satisfied with cost, and moderately satisfied with quality of communication. English-language proficiency was not significantly associated with whether owners sought veterinary care. A large proportion of respondents who wanted to receive pet health information in Spanish described themselves as speaking English well or very well.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Although having limited proficiency in English was not associated with Latino pet owners seeking veterinary care, opportunities exist for veterinary personnel to improve communications with these clients. Personnel can assess their clients' language needs by asking each about the language in which they would prefer to receive their pet's health information.
To investigate the preparedness of small animal veterinary personnel to communicate with Spanish-speaking pet owners with limited English-language proficiency (LEP).
Cross-sectional telephone survey.
Data from 383 small animal veterinary practices.
Telephone surveys were conducted with veterinarians and office or practice managers from a random sample of US small animal veterinary practices in 10 states to estimate the number of Spanish-speaking pet owners with LEP visiting these practices, proportion of practices that used services to facilitate communication with Spanish-speaking clients with LEP, and degree of veterinarian satisfaction with their communication with those clients.
Responses were obtained from 383 of 1,245 (31%) eligible practices, of which 340 (89%) had Spanish-speaking clients with LEP and 200 (52%) had such clients on a weekly basis. Eight percent of practices had veterinary personnel who were conversant or fluent in spoken Spanish. Veterinarians who depended on clients' friends or family to translate were significantly less satisfied with client communication than were those who could converse in Spanish with clients directly. Availability of Spanish-speaking staff and offering of Spanish-language resources were associated with an increase in the number of Spanish-speaking clients with LEP seen on a weekly basis. Industry- and practice-generated Spanish-language materials were offered at 32% (124/383) and 21% (81/383) of practices, respectively; 329 (86%) practices had no Spanish-language marketing.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Opportunities were identified for improving communication with pet owners with LEP in the veterinary clinical setting, which could ultimately positively impact patient well-being and client compliance.
Objective—To determine whether the increasing
prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism is the result of
aging of the cat population and whether consumption
of canned foods at various times throughout life is
associated with increased risk of hyperthyroidism.
Design—Retrospective and case-control studies.
Study Population—Medical records of 169,576 cats,
including 3,570 cats with hyperthyroidism, evaluated
at 9 veterinary school hospitals during a 20-year period,
and 109 cats with hyperthyroidism (cases) and 173
cats without hyperthyroidism (controls).
Procedure—Age-adjusted hospital prevalence of
hyperthyroidism was calculated by use of Veterinary
Medical Database records. On the basis of owners'
questionnaire responses, logistic regression was
used to evaluate associations between consumption
of canned food and development of hyperthyroidism.
Results—Age-specific hospital prevalence of feline
hyperthyroidism increased significantly from 1978 to
1997. Overall, consumption of pop-top canned (vs dry)
food at various times throughout life and each additional
year of age were associated with greater risk of
developing hyperthyroidism. In female cats, increased
risk was associated with consumption of food packaged
in pop-top cans or in combinations of pop-top
and non-pop-top cans. In male cats, increased risk
was associated with consumption of food packaged
in pop-top cans and age.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These findings
suggest that the increasing prevalence of feline
hyperthyroidism is not solely the result of aging of the
cat population and that canned foods may play a role.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:879–886)
Objective—To determine risk factors for pet evacuation
failure during a flood.
Sample Population—203 pet-owning households in
a flooded region.
Procedures—Persons under evacuation notice
because of a flood were interviewed by use of a random
Results—102 households evacuated with their pets,
whereas 101 households evacuated without their
pets. Low pet attachment and commitment scores
were significantly associated with a greater chance of
pet evacuation failure. Risk of pet evacuation failure
and lower attachment and commitment scores were
also associated with pet management practices prior
to the disaster, such as dogs being kept outdoors
most of the time or owners not having carriers for
their cats. More than 90% of owners made housing
arrangements for their pets without assistance.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Predictors of
pet evacuation failure are usually present before a disaster
strikes and are potentially modifiable. Mitigation
of pet evacuation failure should focus on activities that
reinforce responsible pet ownership and strengthen
the human-animal bond, including socializing dogs,
attending dog behavior training classes, transporting
cats in nondisaster times, and seeking regular preventive
veterinary care. Most pet owners are self-reliant in
disasters, and this behavior should be encouraged.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1905–1910)