Objective—To determine prevalence of Salmonella spp in samples collected from wild North American turtles.
Animals—94 wild North American turtles of 6 species in 2 genera.
Design—Prospective microbiologic study.
Procedures—A convenience sample of wild North Carolina turtles admitted to a veterinary college was evaluated for Salmonella spp by use of standard techniques via microbiologic culture of cloacal swab and fecal samples. Gastrointestinal mucosa samples were also collected at necropsy from turtles that died or were euthanized. Cloacal swab samples were also collected from wild pond turtles for bacteriologic culture. Controls were established by use of wild-type Salmonella Typhimurium LT2.
Results—94 turtles were tested for Salmonella spp; Salmonella spp were not detected in any sample. By use of a pathogen-prevalence and sample-size table, the true prevalence of Salmonella spp was estimated as < 5%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that wild turtles in central North Carolina may not be active shedders or carriers of Salmonella spp. Despite this 0% prevalence of infection, proper hygiene practices should be followed when handling wild turtles.
Case Description—An adult male American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) was evaluated by the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine's Turtle Rescue Team following vehicular trauma.
Clinical Findings—A fracture of the left femur was suspected on examination and palpation of the hind limbs, but no other injuries or abnormalities were detected. While the bullfrog was sedated, whole-body radiographic views were obtained, which revealed a closed midshaft comminuted fracture of the left femur.
Treatment and Outcome—The fracture was repaired by use of an internal fixation technique that included Kirschner wires, a positive-profile pin secured along the femur with encircling sutures, and polymethylmethacrylate molded around the entire apparatus. There were no major complications during the postoperative rehabilitation period. One year after surgery, radiography revealed complete fracture healing and the bullfrog was released back into the wild.
Clinical Relevance—Presently, there are no widely accepted methods for fracture fixation in amphibians. Factors associated with their aquatic environment and lengthy fracture healing time must be addressed when planning fracture fixation strategies. In the bullfrog of this report, the applied internal fixation method provided effective long-term stabilization of the femur, allowed for normal movement, and enabled the bullfrog to be housed in an aquatic environment immediately after surgery.