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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Exogenous creatinine clearance, urinary electrolyte excretions, calcium and phosphorus balance, serum cholesterol concentration, arterial blood pressure, and body weight were evaluated in dogs with chronic renal failure that were fed 2 commercial diets. Nine dogs ranging in age from 1 to 15 years were identified as having mild to moderate chronic renal failure (crf, exogenous creatinine clearance = 0.5 to 2.13 ml/kg of body weight/min). These dogs and a group of 10 clinically normal controls were fed a diet containing 31% protein for 8 weeks at which time hematologic and biochemical evaluations and clearance studies were performed. All dogs then were fed a phosphorus-restricted diet containing 16% protein and then reevaluated after 8 weeks.

The dogs in this study had hematologic and biochemical abnormalities typical of crf. Urine absolute and fractional excretion of electrolytes was higher in dogs with crf than in controls and was affected by diet. Serum cholesterol concentration was higher in dogs with crf and increased in those dogs after feeding the low protein diet. Changes in dietary sodium intake did not affect arterial blood pressure. The phosphorus-restricted diet did not affect serum amino terminal parathyroid hormone concentration in either group. Control dogs lost body weight, whereas dogs with crf gained weight when fed the low protein diet.

We concluded that dogs with mild to moderately severe crf have the same biochemical abnormalities and response to dietary restriction of protein and phosphorus as has been previously reported in dogs with experimentally induced crf. Restriction of dietary sodium may not decrease arterial blood pressure in some dogs with crf. Dogs with crf may be predisposed to hypercholesterolemia when fed restricted protein commercial diets, and reduction of dietary phosphorus intake may be inadequate to control renal secondary hyperparathyroidism in dogs with crf.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

To evaluate underlying causes of calcium oxalate urolithiasis, 24-hour excretion of urine metabolites was measured in 6 Miniature Schnauzers that formed calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths during periods when they were fed a standard diet and during periods when food was withheld. Serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D also were evaluated. Serum calcium concentrations were normal in all 6 affected Miniature Schnauzers; however, during diet consumption, mean 24-hour urinary excretion of calcium was significantly (P = 0.025) higher than calcium excretion when food was withheld. In 1 dog, urinary calcium excretion was lower during the period of food consumption, compared with the period when food was withheld. Compared with clinically normal Beagles, Miniature Schnauzers that formed CaOx uroliths excreted significantly greater quantities of calcium when food was consumed (P = 0.0004) and when food was withheld (P = 0.001).

Miniature Schnauzers that formed CaOx uroliths excreted significantly less oxalate than clinically normal Beagles during fed (P = 0.028) and nonfed (P = 0.004) conditions. Affected Miniature Schnauzers also excreted abnormally high quantities of uric acid. Excretion of citrate was not different between Miniature Schnauzers with CaOx urolithiasis and clinically normal Beagles.

In 5 of 6 Miniature Schnauzers with CaOx urolithiasis, concentrations of serum parathyroid hormone were similar to values from age- and gender-matched Miniature Schnauzers without uroliths. The concentration of serum parathyroid hormone in 1 dog was > 4 times the mean concentration of clinically normal Miniature Schnauzers. Mean serum concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in Miniature Schnauzers with calcium oxalate urolithiasis were similar to concentrations of clinically normal Miniature Schnauzers.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research