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To characterize the variation in plasma lactate concentration among samples from commonly used blood sampling sites in conscious, healthy dogs.


60 healthy dogs.


Cross-sectional study using a replicated Latin square design. Each dog was assigned to 1 of 6 groups (n = 10) representing all possible orders for 3 sites (cephalic vein, jugular vein, and femoral artery) used to obtain blood. Samples were analyzed immediately, by use of direct amperometry for pH, Po2, Pco2, glucose, and lactate concentration.


Significant differences in plasma lactate concentrations were detected among blood samples from the cephalic vein (highest), femoral artery, and jugular vein (lowest). Mean plasma lactate concentration in the first sample obtained, irrespective of sampling site, was lower than in subsequent samples. Covariation was identified among plasma lactate concentration, pH, and Pco2, but correlation coefficients were low.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Plasma lactate concentrations differed among blood samples from various sites. A reference range for plasma lactate concentration was 0.3 to 2.5 mmol/L. Differences in plasma lactate concentrations among samples from various sites and with repeated sampling, in healthy dogs, are small. Use of the reference range may facilitate the clinical use of plasma lactate concentration in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1999; 60:521-524)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Serum IgA, IgG, and IgM concentrations were determined for Beagle sires and dams of 717 matings to assess the relationship of parental immunoglobulins with the morbidity and mortality of their pups. A significant relationship was not found between parental immunoglobulins and pup mortality. Pups born to dams with low serum IgA (P < 0.001) and IgM (P < 0.02) concentrations, however, were found to have an increased incidence of sneezing, coughing, nasal discharge, and conjunctivitis. Thirty-eight percent of pups born to dams with IgA ≤ 40 mg/dl developed these same conditions during the first 18 weeks of life, compared with 32% of pups of dams with IgA of 41 to 65 mg/dl and 27% of pups of dams with IgA > 65 mg/dl. Similarly, 41% of pups born to dams with low IgM (≤ 135 mg/dl) developed abnormal respiratory tract signs, compared with 34% and 30% of pups born to dams with medium (136 to 175 mg/dl) and high (> 175 mg/dl) IgM, respectively. Serum IgA concentrations of the sires were also associated with abnormal respiratory tract signs in pups, but this influence was evident only at 10 to 18 weeks of age.

To determine biologic variability of serum IgA, 60 Beagle dams were selected from 3 serum IgA categories, low (10 to 21 mg/dl), medium (60 to 80 mg/dl), and high (125 to 210 mg/dl). A second serum IgA was determined from a sample taken 2 years later. The intraclass correlation coefficient (rI) indicated considerable biologic variability in all 3 groups: r I = −0.24, r I = 0.09, and rI = 0.46, for low, medium, and high IgA categories, respectively. In contrast, minimal variability was noticed between observers (r I = 0.98) and in the radial immunodiffusion test itself (r I = 0.96).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research