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  • Author or Editor: Larry J. Wallace x
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SUMMARY

Eleven pairs of canine metacarpal bones, 10 pairs of metatarsal bones, and 7 pairs of ribs were harvested cleanly and prepared for banking at −20 C for 1 year. One bone of each pair was randomly assigned to 1 type of storage: plastic pack vs immersion in a normal solution of sodium chloride. The contralateral bone was assigned to the opposite treatment.

Six pairs of metacarpal bones and 5 pairs of metatarsal bones were tested in torsion to failure. No significant difference was found within pairs. All ribs, 5 pairs of metacarpal bones, and 5 pairs of metatarsal bones were loaded in 4-point bending to failure. The energy absorbed at failure and the ultimate displacement of ribs and metacarpal and metatarsal bones were increased by 25 to 30% and 18 to 24%, respectively, when the bones were frozen in isotonic saline solution. Corticocancellous grafts frozen in normal saline solution are biomechanically less fragile and brittle than grafts stored in plastic without saline solution.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the clinical and pathologic findings in dogs with primary bicipital tenosynovitis.

Animals—19 dogs with 20 shoulder joints treated surgically for bicipital tenosynovitis and 8 shoulder joints from 4 clinically normal dogs.

Procedure—Histologic abnormalities of tendon sheaths of the biceps brachii in affected dogs were determined by use of comparison with findings in clinically normal dogs. Specimens were graded for inflammation, fibrosis, villous hypertrophy, vascular prominence, and synovial cell proliferation. Histopathologic results were statistically evaluated for relationship with clinical findings and treatment before surgery.

Results—Synovial villous hypertrophy and vascular prominence were the most consistent histologic findings in 16 and 14 of 20 affected joints, respectively. Evidence of inflammation was lacking in 6 joints. Ten joints had inflammatory cell infiltration of the tendon sheath. Plasma cells and lymphocytes were the most common infiltrates; however, the type and amount of inflammatory cell infiltrate were variable. Fibrosis of the tendon sheath was seen in 8 joints, and synovial cell proliferation was seen in 11 joints. Other changes included accumulation of hemosiderin, focal calcification, osseous metaplasia, lysis of collagen, and fibrocartilaginous metaplasia. No significant relationship was detected between histopathologic findings and clinical findings or treatment before surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Inflammation was more variable than hypothesized and may not be a consistent pathophysiologic feature of bicipital tenosynovitis. In some dogs, this disease may be the result of a degenerative process rather than an inflammatory process. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:402–407)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine long-term results of various treatments for traumatic coxofemoral joint dislocation in dogs.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

64 dogs that underwent closed reduction and bandage stabilization, extracapsular suture stabilization, transacetabular pinning, toggle pinning, DeVita pinning, or femoral head and neck excision.

Procedure

Follow-up evaluations included owner evaluation (64 dogs), physical evaluation (23), and radiography (19). Follow-up time ranged from 8 to 156 months.

Results

Owner evaluation scores after closed reduction were significantly better than scores after DeVita pinning, extracapsular suture stabilization, and femoral head and neck excision. On physical examination, 6 of 23 dogs were lame on the side of the previous dislocation. Signs of pain and crepitation were evident during palpation of 12 and 8 of 25 joints, respectively. Thirteen of 21 joints had radiographic evidence of degenerative joint disease. There was a greater progression of degenerative joint disease in previously dislocated joints than in unaffected joints. There were not any significant differences between treatments in regard to results of physical and radiographic evaluation. Time between trauma and treatment and existence of concomitant injuries did not influence follow-up results, but there was a significant association between body weight and radiographic evaluation score.

Clinical Implications

Concomitant injuries do not appear to justify a worse prognosis in dogs with traumatic coxofemoral joint dislocation, nor does a delay in treatment of > 3 days. Gait abnormalities and degenerative joint disease might develop in the long term. Proper body weight should be maintained regardless of treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997; 210:59–64)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 23 dogs with unilateral and 3 dogs with bilateral chronic bicipital tenosynovitis were reviewed. Mean age of affected dogs was 4.6 years (SD, 2.0 years), and mean body weight was 32.6 kg (SD, 14.5 kg). Neither a breed nor a gender predilection was detected. All dogs had a history of intermittent or progressive weight-bearing lameness that became worse after exercise. Mean duration of lameness prior to medical or surgical treatment was 6.5 months (range, 0.25 to 24 months), in all dogs, signs of pain were evident during palpation of the biceps tendon within the intertubercular groove. Radiography revealed sclerosis or osteophytosis of the intertubercular groove in all 29 shoulder joints. Mild degenerative joint disease was evident rudiographicully in 17. Arthrography was performed in 12 joints, and in 11 there were irregularities of or filling defects along the biceps tendon. Arthrocentesis was performed on 17 joints; 14 synovial fluid samples had cytologic abnormalities consistent with degenerative joint disease.

Medical treatment, consisting of injection of methylprcdnisolone acetate into the biceps tendon and its synovial sheath, was attempted in 21 of the 29 affected shoulder joints. Surgery, which consisted of tenodesis of the biceps tendon, was attempted in 14 joints; S of these had not been treated medically; the remaining 6 had poor results following medical treatment.

Gross and histologic findings consistent with chrome bicipital tenosynovitis were observed in all 14 joints in which surgery was performed. Seventeen of the medically treated shoulders were available for clinical evaluation, and results were excellent or good in 7. Twelve of the surgically treated shoulders were available for clinical re-evaluation, and results were excellent or good in all 12 (mean duration of follow-up, 5.7 months; range, 2 to 13 months). Owners of all dogs were contacted by telephone. Owners reported that results were excellent or good in 1.0 of the 21 medically treated shoulder joints, and in ail 14 of the, surgically treated shoulder joints (mean duration of follow-up, 30.1 months; range, 4 to 82 months).

Complications developed in 3 of the 4 dogs in which an osteotomy of the greater tubercle had been performed (implant migration, 2 dogs; delayed union, 1 dog). A seroma developed in 1 of the 10 dogs in which tenodesis was performed by laterally transposing the biceps tendon through a hole in the greater tubercle. Complications related to medical treatment were not detected.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To investigate the relationship between pelvic muscle mass and development and expression of canine hip dysplasia (CHD).

Design—

Prospective study.

Animals—

5 Greyhounds with anatomically normal hip joints, 59 German Shepherd Dogs (23 with CHD, 24 with near-normal hip joints, and 12 with normal hip joints), and 18 German Shepherd Dog-Greyhound crossbreeds (7 with CHD, 6 with near-normal hip joints, and 5 with normal hip joints) between 12 and 47 months old in which pelvic muscle mass was evaluated. Pectineal muscle and hip joint development were evaluated in 25 German Shepherd Dogs at 8 and 16 or 24 weeks of age.

Procedures—

For evaluation of pelvic muscle mass, individual pelvic muscles were weighed and hip joints were assigned a score on the basis of severity of degenerative changes, For evaluation of pectineal muscle development, muscle sections were stained and examined.

Results—

Pelvic muscle mass was greatest in Greyhounds, intermediate in crossbred dogs, and smallest in German Shepherd Dogs. Differences in pelvic muscle mass among breeds were attributable to differences in weights of individual muscles. Hip score was negatively correlated with pelvic muscle mass and weights of selected pelvic muscles. Dogs with pectineal hypotrophy at 8 weeks of age had type-2 muscle fiber paucity or muscle fiber-type grouping at 16 or 24 weeks of age. At 8 weeks of age, hip joints were composed of multiple centers of ossification, and the acetabulum was largely cartilaginous. By 24 weeks of age, the pelvic bones were largely, although incompletely, fused.

Clinical Implications—

Diminished pelvic muscle mass in dogs with CHD and altered muscle fiber size and composition in 8-week-old dogs that subsequently develop CHD strongly suggest that abnormalities of pelvic musculature are associated with development of CHD. The complex development of the hip joint from multiple centers of ossification may make the joint susceptible to abnormal modeling forces that would result from abnormalities in pelvic muscle mass. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:1466–1473)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine absolute and relative cell counts for synovial fluid from grossly, radiographically, and histologically normal shoulder and stifle joints in healthy cats.

Design—Clinical study.

Animals—52 cats scheduled to be euthanatized for unrelated reasons.

Procedure—Arthrocentesis of the shoulder and stifle joints was performed bilaterally, and synovial fluid was analyzed for absolute WBC count, WBC morphology, and percentages of neutrophils and mononuclear cells. Joints were examined grossly and radiographically, and synovial membrane specimens were submitted for histologic examination. Synovial fluid samples that were contaminated with blood and samples from joints with any gross, radiographic, or histologic abnormalities were excluded.

Results—82 of the 208 synovial fluid samples were excluded because abnormalities were identified during physical examination; the volume of fluid obtained was insufficient for analysis; there was evidence of blood contamination; or the joint had gross, radiographic, or histologic abnormalities. Median WBC count for the remaining 126 synovial fluid samples was 91 cells/μL (96.4% mononuclear cells and 3.6% neutrophils); WBC count was not significantly different between left and right joint samples or between shoulder and stifle joint samples. Body weight was associated with synovial fluid WBC count, with WBC count increasing as body weight increased. Sixteen of the 52 (30%) cats had radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis involving at least 1 joint.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that synovial fluid can be obtained reliably from shoulder and stifle joints in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1866–1870)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association