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  • Author or Editor: Larry H. Stanker x
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To determine functional responses of neonatal chicken and turkey heterophils to various inflammatory agonists.


100 one-day-old chickens and turkeys.


Blood heterophils were isolated and stimulated for 30 minutes at 39 C with ionomycin, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), opsonized zymosan (OZ), or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). Functional responses (shape change, adherence, phagocytosis, influx of intracellular calcium, and oxidative burst) of stimulated heterophils were measured and compared with responses of unstimulated (control) heterophils.


Turkey and chicken heterophils did not respond to FMLP stimulation. Stimulation of chicken and turkey heterophils with ionomycin resulted in significant increases in adherence, percentage of cells with a shape change, phagocytosis, intracellular calcium concentration, and oxidative burst. Turkey heterophils did not respond to PMA stimulation, whereas stimulation of chicken heterophils with PMA resulted in significant increases in adherence, percentage of cells with a shape change, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst but not intracellular calcium concentration. Stimulation of chicken and turkey heterophils with OZ resulted in significant increases in oxidative burst.


Mechanisms regulating initiation of heterophil activation in neonatal chicken and turkey heterophils are consistent with those described for heterophils isolated from mature birds. The biochemical and cytoskeletal systems of neonatal avian heterophils undergo functional alterations following stimulation with inflammatory agonists.

Clinical Relevance

Understanding heterophil activation and regulation should eventually lead to methods for controlling bacterial diseases in poultry. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1404–1408)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To enumerate the prevalence of Campylobacter isolates in the intestinal tract of market-weight swine raised in an integrated swine operation in Texas.

Sample Population

Samples of cecal contents were collected from 595 pigs (mean body weight, 110 kg [242 lb]) at time of slaughter. Pigs were offspring of Yorkshire-Landrace sows and Duroc or Hampshire boars. Pigs originated from 4 farrow-to-finish farms.


During a 9-month period, visits were made to a slaughter plant to remove cecal contents from market-weight hogs. Samples were obtained from 50 pigs/visit from designated farms so that samples were obtained 3 times from pigs of each of 4 farms. Isolation of Campylobacter spp was accomplished by use of enrichment broth and restrictive media, using microaerophilic conditions.


Campylobacter spp were isolated from 70 to 100% of the pigs, depending on the farm and the date the samples were collected. Campylobacter coli was isolated from 20 to 100% (mean, 60%) of samples, and C jejuni was isolated from 0 to 76% (mean, 31%) of samples. Campylobacter lari was isolated from 2 pigs. Concentrations of C coli or C jejuni ranged from 103 to 107 colony-forming units/g of cecal content.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Campylobacter coli generally is accepted as a common inhabitant of the intestinal tract of swine. However, analysis of results of this study suggests that a relatively high prevalence of C jejuni may be found in pigs raised on specific farms. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1601–1604)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association