Objective—To determine the biocontainment, biosecurity, and security practices at beef feedyards in the Central Plains of the United States.
Sample Population—Managers of feedyards in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and Texas that feed beef cattle for finish before slaughter; feedyards had to have an active concentrated animal feeding operation permit with a 1-time capacity of ≥ 1,000 cattle.
Procedures—A voluntary survey of feedyard personnel was conducted. Identified feedyard personnel were interviewed and responses regarding facility design, security, employees, disease preparedness, feedstuffs, hospital or treatment systems, sanitation, cattle sources, handling of sick cattle, and disposal of carcasses were collected in a database questionnaire.
Results—The survey was conducted for 106 feedyards with a 1-time capacity that ranged from 1,300 to 125,000 cattle. Feedyards in general did not have high implementation of biocontainment, biosecurity, or security practices. Smaller feedyards were, in general, less likely to use good practices than were larger feedyards.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the survey provided standard practices for biocontainment, biosecurity, and security in feedyards located in Central Plains states. Information gained from the survey results can be used by consulting veterinarians and feedyard managers as a basis for discussion and to target training efforts.
Objective—To compare iatrogenic transmission of Anaplasma marginale during sham vaccination between needle and needle-free injection techniques.
Animals—26 Holstein steers confirmed negative for anaplasmosis by use of a competitive ELISA (cELISA) and an A marginale-specific reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay.
Procedures—An isolate of A marginale was propagated to a circulating parasitemia of 2.0% in a splenectomized steer. Sham vaccination was performed in the left cervical muscles of the splenectomized parasitemic steer with a hypodermic needle fitted to a multiple-dose syringe. The same needle and syringe were used to sham vaccinate a naïve steer. This 2-step procedure was repeated until 10 naïve steers (group ND) were injected. Similarly, sham vaccination of the left cervical muscles of the splenectomized parasitemic steer and another group of 10 naïve steers (group NF) was performed by use of a needle-free injection system. Five control steers were not injected. Disease status was evaluated twice weekly for 61 days by use of light microscopy, a cELISA, and an A marginale-specific RT-PCR assay.
Results—Iatrogenic transmission was detected in 6 of 10 steers in group ND. Disease status did not change in the NF or control steers. Sensitivity of light microscopy, cELISA, and RT-PCR assay was 100% on days 41, 41, and 20 after sham vaccination, respectively; however, only cELISA and RT-PCR assay sustained a sensitivity of 100% thereafter.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Needle-free injection was superior to needle injection for the control of iatrogenic transmission of A marginale. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71 1178-1188)