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Objective

To characterize glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) concentrations in the blood of dogs with disorders that may affect serum glucose or blood GHb concentrations, and to determine whether changes in GHb concentration correlate with changes in control of diabetes in dogs.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

63 healthy dogs, 9 dogs with anemia, 24 dogs with untreated hyperadrenocorticism, 12 dogs with pancreatic β-cell neoplasia, 23 dogs with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus, and 77 diabetic dogs treated with insulin.

Procedure

Control of diabetes in dogs treated with insulin was classified as good or poor on the basis of history, physical examination findings, changes in body weight, and measurement of serum glucose concentrations. Sequential evaluations of control were performed and GHb concentration in blood was measured, by means of affinity chromatography, for 5 untreated diabetic dogs before and after initiating insulin treatment, for 10 poorly controlled diabetic dogs before and after increasing insulin dosage, and for 5 diabetic dogs before and after pancreatic islet cell transplantation.

Results

Mean (± SD) GHb concentration was 3.3 ± 0.8% in the blood of healthy dogs. Compared with results from healthy dogs, mean GHb concentration was significantly lower in the blood of dogs with anemia and pancreatic β-cell neoplasia and significantly higher in the blood of untreated diabetic dogs. Mean GHb concentration was significantly higher in the blood of 46 poorly controlled diabetic dogs, compared with 31 well-controlled diabetic dogs (7.3 ± 1.8 vs 5.7 ± 1.7%, respectively). Mean GHb concentration in blood decreased significantly in 5 untreated diabetic dogs after treatment (8.7 ± 1.9 vs 5.3 ± 1.9%). Mean GHb concentration in blood also decreased significantly in 10 poorly controlled diabetic dogs after control was improved and in 5 diabetic dogs after they had received a pancreatic islet cell transplant.

Clinical Implications

Measurement of GHb concentration in blood may assist in monitoring control of diabetes in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997; 211:723–727)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare plasma clearance of inulin and iohexol determined by use of 9 plasma samples for evaluation of glomerular filtration rate in dogs and to evaluate limited-sample approaches for evaluation of plasma clearance of these markers.

Animals—43 dogs of various breeds that weighed between 5.5 and 63 kg and that had various degrees of renal function.

Procedures—9 plasma samples were obtained from each dog at 5 minutes to 6 hours after IV bolus injection of iohexol and inulin. Clearance was calculated by use of results for all 9 samples (ie, reference method). Results for 3 limited-sample strategies for determination of plasma clearance of iohexol and inulin were compared with results for the reference method.

Results—Mean clearance of inulin and iohexol for the reference method was 2.72 and 2.48 mL/min/kg, respectively. The mean difference between clearance of these 2 markers for the reference method was 0.24 mL/min/kg. In general, use of the limited-sample strategies yielded clearance values similar to those for the reference method. More accurate estimates of clearance were obtained for iohexol than for inulin by use of the limited-sample methods.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of iohexol and inulin yielded similar but not identical results for plasma clearance. Accuracy for limited-sample methods would be acceptable for many clinical and research situations. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1100–1107)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the reliability of history and physical examination findings for assessing control of glycemia in insulin-treated diabetic dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—53 insulin-treated dogs with diabetes mellitus.

Procedure—Medical records of insulin-treated diabetic dogs from June 1995 to June 1998 were reviewed, and information on owner perception of their dog's response to insulin treatment, physical examination findings, body weight, insulin dosage, and concentrations of food-withheld (ie, fasting) blood glucose (FBG), mean blood glucose (MBG) during an 8-hour period, blood glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb), and serum fructosamine was obtained. Owner's perception of their dog's response to insulin treatment, physical examination findings, and changes in body weight were used to classify control of glycemia as good or poor for each dog. The FBG, MBG/8 h, blood GHb, and serum fructosamine concentrations were compared between well-controlled and poorly controlled insulin-treated diabetic dogs.

Results—Presence or absence of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, lethargy, and weakness were most helpful in classifying control of glycemia. Mean FBG and MBG/8 h concentrations, blood GHb concentrations, and serum fructosamine concentrations were significantly decreased in 25 well-controlled diabetic dogs, compared with 28 poorly controlled diabetic dogs. Most well-controlled diabetic dogs had concentrations of FBG between 100 and 300 mg/dl, MBG/8 h ≤ 250 mg/dl, blood GHb ≤ 7.5%, and serum fructosamine ≤ 525 µmol/L, whereas most poorly controlled diabetic dogs had results that were greater than these values.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Reliance on history, physical examination findings, and changes in body weight are effective for initially assessing control of glycemia in insulin-treated diabetic dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:48–53)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To correlate serum fructosamine concentrations with established measures of glycemic control and to compare serum fructosamine and blood glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) concentrations as a means for assessing glycemic control in diabetic cats.

Design

Longitudinal cohort study.

Animals

26 healthy cats, 5 cats with stress-induced hyperglycemia, 15 untreated diabetic cats, and 36 treated diabetic cats.

Procedure

Control of glycemia was classified and monitored and serum fructosamine and blood GHb concentrations were measured for 12 poorly controlled diabetic cats before and after improving glycemic control, 8 well-controlled treated diabetic cats before and after glycemic control deteriorated, and 5 cats with diabetes mellitus before and after onset of stress-induced hyperglycemia.

Results

Mean serum fructosamine and blood GHb concentrations were significantly higher in untreated diabetic cats, compared with healthy cats, and in 24 poorly controlled diabetic cats, compared with 12 well-controlled diabetic cats. Mean serum fructosamine and blood GHb concentrations decreased significantly in 12 poorly controlled diabetic cats after improving glycemic control and increased significantly in 8 well-controlled diabetic cats after glycemic control deteriorated. A significant stress-induced increase in mean blood glucose concentration was evident 12 hours after insulin administration, but not in 5 docile diabetic cats that became fractious.

Clinical Implications

Serum fructosamine and blood GHb concentrations are clinically useful tools for monitoring control of glycemia in cats with diabetes mellitus. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:1794-1798)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate the effect of a high insolublefiber (HF) diet containing 12% cellulose in dry matter and a low insoluble-fiber (LF) diet on control of glycemia in dogs with naturally acquired insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

Design

Prospective randomized crossover controlled trial.

Animals

11 dogs with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus.

Procedure

Dogs were fed HF and LF diets for 8 months each in 1 of 2 randomly assigned diet sequences. Caloric intake and insulin treatment were adjusted as needed to maintain stable body weight and control of glycemia, respectively. After a 2-month adaptation period, control of glycemia was evaluated every 6 weeks for 6 months. Variables assessed included serum glucose concentration measured during the preprandial state, blood glycosylated hemoglobin concentration, serum glucose concentration measured every 2 hours for 24 hours beginning at the time of the morning insulin injection, 24-hour mean serum glucose concentration, mean serum glucose concentration fluctuation from the 24-hour mean serum glucose concentration, and 24-hour urinary excretion of glucose.

Results

Significant differences in mean daily caloric intake, body weight, or daily insulin dosage among dogs fed HF and LF diets were not found. Mean preprandial serum glucose concentration, most postprandial serum glucose concentrations, 24-hour mean serum glucose concentration, and 24-hour urinary excretion of glucose were significantly lower in dogs fed the HF diet, compared with the LF diet.

Clinical Implications

Results of this study support feeding of commercially available insoluble fiber diets to dogs with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212:380-386)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of dietary insoluble fiber on control of glycemia in cats with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus.

Design—Randomized controlled crossover trial.

Animals—16 cats with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus.

Procedure—Cats were fed a diet high in insoluble fiber (HF) containing 12% cellulose (dry-matter basis) or a diet low in insoluble fiber (LF) for 24 weeks; they were fed the other diet for the subsequent 24 weeks. Caloric intake and insulin treatment were adjusted to maintain stable body weight and control of glycemia, respectively. Cats were allowed an adaption period of 6 weeks after initiation of a diet, after which control of glycemia was evaluated at 6-week intervals for 18 weeks. Variables assessed included serum glucose concentration measured during the preprandial state, blood glycated hemoglobin concentration, serum glucose concentration measured at 2-hour intervals for 12 hours beginning at the time of the morning insulin injection, 12-hour mean serum glucose concentration, and mean fluctuation in serum glucose concentration from the 12-hour mean serum glucose concentration.

Results—Mean daily caloric intake, body weight, or daily insulin dosage did not differ significantly between cats when fed HF and LF diets. Mean preprandial serum glucose concentration, most postprandial serum glucose concentrations, and the 12-hour mean serum glucose concentration were significantly lower when cats consumed the HF diet, compared with values when cats consumed the LF diet.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These results support feeding a commercially available diet containing approximately 12% insoluble fiber (dry-matter basis) to cats with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1082–1088)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association