Objective—To examine effects of an autologous platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) membrane for enhancing healing of a defect of the patellar tendon (PT) in dogs.
Animals—8 adult dogs.
Procedures—Defects were created in the central third of the PT in both hind limbs of each dog. An autologous PRF membrane was implanted in 1 defect/dog, and the contralateral defect was left empty. Dogs (n = 4/time period) were euthanized at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery, and tendon healing was assessed grossly and histologically via a semiquantitative scoring system. Cross-sectional area of the PTs was also compared.
Results—Both treated and control defects were filled with repair tissue by 4 weeks. There was no significant difference in the histologic quality of the repair tissue between control and PRF membrane—treated defects at either time point. At both time points, the cross-sectional area of PRF membrane—treated tendons was significantly greater (at least 2.5-fold as great), compared with that of sham-treated tendons. At 4 weeks, the repair tissue consisted of disorganized proliferative fibrovascular tissue originating predominantly from the fat pad. By 8 weeks, the tissue was less cellular and slightly more organized in both groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A PRF membrane did not enhance the rate or quality of tendon healing in PT defects. However, it did increase the amount of repair tissue within and surrounding the defect. These results suggested that a PRF membrane may not be indicated for augmenting the repair of acutely injured tendons that are otherwise healthy.
OBJECTIVE To describe vertebral left atrial size (VLAS), a quantitative method to estimate left atrial (LA) size radiographically, and to determine its diagnostic value for prediction of echocardiographic LA enlargement in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) of varying severity.
DESIGN Prospective observational study.
ANIMALS 103 client-owned dogs with a left-sided systolic murmur.
PROCEDURES For each dog, 3-view thoracic radiographs were obtained within 24 hours of an echocardiographic examination. The VLAS was measured on right and left lateral thoracic radiographs and compared with the left atrium-to-aortic root ratio acquired from short-axis (LA:AoSx) and long-axis (LA:AoLx) echocardiographic images. Left atrial enlargement was defined as an LA:AoLx ≥ 2.6 or LA:AoSx ≥ 1.6. Dogs were allocated to 4 groups on the basis of MMVD severity.
RESULTS Of the 103 dogs, 15, 40, 26, and 22 were assigned to the control (no echocardiographic abnormalities), stage B1 (hemodynamically irrelevant MMVD), B2 (hemodynamically relevant MMVD), and C-D (MMVD with congestive heart failure) groups, respectively. Median VLAS, LA:AoSx, and LA:AoLx for the stage B2 and C-D groups were significantly greater than the corresponding medians for the control and stage B1 groups. There was a moderate positive correlation between VLAS and both LA:AoSx and LA:AoLx. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed that a VLAS ≥ 2.3 vertebrae was a useful predictor of LA enlargement. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements for VLAS measurements were high.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated VLAS was a repeatable and useful radiographic measurement for prediction of LA enlargement in dogs with MMVD.
To evaluate radiation exposure of dogs and cats undergoing procedures requiring intraoperative fluoroscopy and for operators performing those procedures.
360 fluoroscopic procedures performed at 2 academic institutions between 2012 and 2015.
Fluoroscopic procedures were classified as vascular, urinary, respiratory, cardiac, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic. Fluoroscopy operators were classified as interventional radiology-trained clinicians, orthopedic surgeons, soft tissue surgeons, internists, and cardiologists. Total radiation exposure in milligrays and total fluoroscopy time in minutes were obtained from dose reports for 4 C-arm units. Kruskal-Wallis equality of populations rank tests and Dunn pairwise comparisons were used to compare differences in time and exposure among procedures and operators.
Fluoroscopy time (median, 35.80 minutes; range, 0.60 to 84.70 minutes) was significantly greater and radiation exposure (median, 137.00 mGy; range, 3.00 to 617.51 mGy) was significantly higher for vascular procedures than for other procedures. Median total radiation exposure was significantly higher for procedures performed by interventional radiology-trained clinicians (16.10 mGy; range, 0.44 to 617.50 mGy), cardiologists (25.82 mGy; range, 0.33 to 287.45 mGy), and internists (25.24 mGy; range, 3.58 to 185.79 mGy).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Vascular fluoroscopic procedures were associated with significantly longer fluoroscopy time and higher radiation exposure than were other evaluated fluoroscopic procedures. Future studies should focus on quantitative radiation monitoring for patients and operators, importance of operator training, intraoperative safety measures, and protocols for postoperative monitoring of patients.