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- Author or Editor: Lais R. R. Costa x
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To describe an animal health database used to facilitate effective disaster response and retrospective analysis of data concerning animals other than cats and dogs affected by the 2018 California Camp Fire.
Veterinary medical entries (n = 206) for evacuated or rescued animals (151) of various species, including avian, bovine, camelid, caprine, equine, ovine, and porcine species, temporarily housed at the Butte County fairgrounds in Gridley, Calif.
Case data were collected via a standardized form by volunteers with the University of California-Davis Veterinary Emergency Response Team during triage and treatment of animals brought to the shelter. Collected data were entered into a database. Multiple correspondence analysis was used to evaluate associations among patient species, types and severity of injuries, and behavior.
Burns, respiratory disease, gastrointestinal illnesses, and lacerations were the most prevalent illnesses and injuries among the overall shelter population for the first 12 days of the Camp Fire. Ovine patients were more likely to have had respiratory illness than were other species. The most prevalent medical conditions among equine patients were lacerations and gastrointestinal illnesses. Severe burns were most common among porcine, camelid, and avian patients. The temporal distribution of cases suggested the immediate evacuation of equine species and the delayed movement of bovine and avian species to the shelter.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Collection of animal health information through the database allowed assessment of prevalent medical conditions among various farm animals following a wildfire. Adaptation of this database to other disasters could improve emergency response protocols by providing guidance for management of resources and allow retrospective assessment for response improvement.
Objective—To describe the seasonal pattern of clinical exacerbation of summer pasture-associated recurrent airway obstruction (SPA-RAO) in relation to climate and aeroallergens in horses.
Animals—19 horses with SPA-RAO and 10 nonaffected horses.
Procedures—Daily examinations were performed on all horses while they were kept on pasture for 3 years. Onset and progression of clinical exacerbation based on a clinical score of respiratory effort were evaluated in relation to changes in maximum temperature, minimum temperature, mean temperature, maximum dew-point temperature, minimum dew-point temperature, and delta dew-point temperature. Seasonal pattern of clinical exacerbation was evaluated in relation to aeroallergen counts (20 types of fungal spores and 28 types of pollen).
Results—Seasonal pattern of clinical exacerbation of SPA-RAO was associated with increases in temperature (heat) and dew-point temperature (humidity), counts of fungal spores, and counts of grass pollen grains. Seasonal pattern of clinical exacerbation paralleled and was associated with increases in counts of specific types of fungal spores, particularly Basidiospore, Nigrospora, and Curvularia spp.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although a causal relationship could not be determined, the seasonal pattern of clinical exacerbation of SPA-RAO was associated with hot and humid conditions and high environmental counts for fungal spores and grass pollen grains. It is not known yet whether these are aeroallergens that cause clinical exacerbation of the disease.
Objective—To determine concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and localize nitric oxide synthesis in the lungs of horses with summer pasture-associated obstructive pulmonary disease (SPAOPD).
Animals—7 adult horses with SPAOPD and 6 clinically normal adult horses.
Procedure—Severity of SPAOPD was determined by use of clinical scores, change in intrapleural pressure (ΔPpl) during tidal breathing, cytologic analysis of BALF, and histologic evaluation of lung specimens obtained during necropsy. Nitric oxide concentrations in plasma, BALF, and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) were determined by use of a chemiluminescent method. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine (NT) were localized in formalin-fixed lung specimens by use of immunohistochemical staining, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPHd) activity was localized in cryopreserved specimens by use of histochemical staining.
Results—Plasma concentration of NO in affected horses was slightly but not significantly greater than concentration in nonaffected horses. Nitric oxide concentrations in BALF or ELF did not differ between groups. Immunoreactivity of iNOS in bronchial epithelial cells of 3 of 5 lung lobes was greater in horses with SPAOPD, compared with nonaffected horses. However, staining for NT and NADPHd activity did not differ between groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Expression of iNOS was greater in bronchial epithelial cells of horses with SPAOPD, compared with nonaffected horses, suggesting that NO may play a role in amplifying the inflammatory process in the airways of horses with this disease. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1381–1386)
Objective—To immunohistochemically determine the expression of endothelin (ET) receptors in bronchial smooth muscle and epithelium of healthy horses and horses affected by summer pasture-associated obstructive pulmonary disease (SPAOPD).
Sample Population—Tissue specimens obtained from 8 healthy and 8 SPAOPD-affected horses.
Procedure—Horses were examined and assigned to healthy and SPAOPD groups. Horses were then euthanatized, and tissue specimens containing bronchi of approximately 4 to 8 mm in diameter were immediately collected from all lung lobes, fixed in zinc-formalin solution for 12 hours, and embedded in paraffin. Polyclonal primary antibodies against ET-A or ET-B receptors at a dilution of 1:200 and biotinylated IgG secondary antibodies were applied to tissue sections, followed by the addition of an avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase complex. Photographs of the stained slides were digitally recorded and analyzed by use of image analysis software to determine the intensity of staining. Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis.
Results—The left diaphragmatic lung lobe of SPAOPD-affected horses had a significantly greater area of bronchial smooth muscle that immunostained for ET-A, compared with that for healthy horses. All lung lobes of SPAOPD-affected horses, except for the right diaphragmatic lobe, had significantly greater staining for ET-B receptors in bronchial smooth muscle, compared with results for healthy horses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study revealed overexpression of ET-A and, in particular, ETB receptors in the bronchial smooth muscle of SPAOPD-affected horses, which suggested upregulation of these receptors. These findings improve our understanding of the role of ET-1 in the pathogenesis of SPAOPD.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of 2 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) sampling techniques and the use of N-butylscopolammonium bromide (NBB) on the quantity and quality of BAL fluid (BALF) samples obtained from horses with the summer pasture endophenotype of equine asthma.
ANIMALS 8 horses with the summer pasture endophenotype of equine asthma.
PROCEDURES BAL was performed bilaterally (right and left lung sites) with a flexible videoendoscope passed through the left or right nasal passage. During lavage of the first lung site, a BALF sample was collected by means of either gentle syringe aspiration or mechanical suction with a pressure-regulated wall-mounted suction pump. The endoscope was then maneuvered into the contralateral lung site, and lavage was performed with the alternate fluid retrieval technique. For each horse, BAL was performed bilaterally once with and once without premedication with NBB (21-day interval). The BALF samples retrieved were evaluated for volume, total cell count, differential cell count, RBC count, and total protein concentration.
RESULTS Use of syringe aspiration significantly increased total BALF volume (mean volume increase, 40 mL [approx 7.5% yield]) and decreased total RBC count (mean decrease, 142 cells/μL), compared with use of mechanical suction. The BALF nucleated cell count and differential cell count did not differ between BAL procedures. Use of NBB had no effect on BALF retrieval.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that retrieval of BALF by syringe aspiration may increase yield and reduce barotrauma in horses at increased risk of bronchoconstriction and bronchiolar collapse. Further studies to determine the usefulness of NBB and other bronchodilators during BAL procedures in horses are warranted.
Objective—To correlate clinical score, intrapleural pressure, cytologic findings of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and histologic lesions of pulmonary tissue in horses affected with summer pasture-associated obstructive pulmonary disease (SPAOPD).
Animals—8 adult horses affected with SPAOPD and 6 adult horses without evidence of respiratory tract disease.
Procedure—Clinical score, change in intrapleural pressure (ΔPpl) during tidal breathing, results of cytologic examination and bacteriologic culture of BALF, and results of histologic examination of pulmonary parenchyma were evaluated.
Results—Clinical scores for SPAOPD-affected horses (median, 5.75; range, 4.0 to 7.5) were significantly greater, compared with clinically normal horses (median, 2.0; range, 2.0 to 3.0). Cytologic examination of BALF from SPAOPD-affected horses revealed predominantly nondegenerate neutrophils. Histologic lesions were identified throughout pulmonary tissue and included severe accumulation of mucus and neutrophils within the small airways, metaplasia of bronchiolar goblet cells, and mild peribronchial infiltrate. Histologic examination of specimens collected via percutaneous biopsy was predictive of disease and corresponded to findings at postmortem examination. Clinical score and δPpl were highly correlated with mucus accumulation in the airways of affected horses. Peribronchial inflammatory infiltrate correlated with percentage of neutrophils in BALF of affected horses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Clinical scoring and ΔPpl provided valid estimates of disease severity. Findings from cytologic examination of BALF of SPAOPD-affected horses varied, although, in most instances, it was diagnostically useful. Severe mucus accumulation in the airways was the most remarkable histopathologic finding in SPAOPDaffected horses. Examination of biopsy specimens collected from pulmonary parenchyma was consistently useful in diagnosing SPAOPD. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:167–173)