Objective—To determine risk factors for development
of sequestra in cattle and identify factors associated
with a successful outcome.
Procedure—Medical records of cattle treated at veterinary
teaching hospitals in North America were
reviewed. To determine risk factors for osseous
sequestration, breed, age, and sex of cattle with
osseous sequestration were compared with breed,
age, and sex of all other cattle admitted during the
Results—110 cattle were included in the study. Three
had 2 sequestra; thus, 113 lesions were identified.
Most sequestra were associated with the bones of
the extremities, most commonly the third metacarpal
or third metatarsal bone. Ninety-two animals were
treated surgically (ie, sequestrectomy), 7 were treated
medically, 3 were initially treated medically and
were then treated surgically, and 8 were not treated.
Follow-up information was available for 65 animals
treated surgically and 6 animals treated medically.
Fifty-one (78%) animals treated surgically and 5 animals
treated medically had a successful outcome.
Cattle that were 6 months to 2 years old had a significantly
increased risk of developing a sequestrum,
compared with cattle < 6 months old. Cattle in which
sequestrectomy was performed with the aid of local
anesthesia were significantly more likely to undergo 2
or more surgical procedures than were cattle in which
sequestrectomy was performed with the aid of general
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that sequestrectomy will result in a successful
outcome for most cattle with osseous sequestration.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:376–383)
To estimate sensitivity and accuracy of subjective evaluation of mild lameness in horses during treadmill locomotion and to correlate subjective evaluation with kinematic analysis.
19 lame and 5 clinically normal horses.
Lameness was evaluated by subjective score and kinematic analysis before and after palmar digital nerve block (PDNB). Evaluations were made by 6 clinicians and 7 interns or residents. Within- and between-observer agreement analyses (κ values) were calculated and compared, using a Student’s t-test. Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated between clinician’s change in score and the change in kinematic variables after PDNB.
Within-observer agreement was within the range expected for conditions of moderate diagnostic difficulty. Within-observer agreement was higher for clinicians than for interns or residents. Between-observer agreement was acceptable for scores within 1 value of each other. Between-observer agreement of change in lameness score after PDNB was poor. When kinematic variables were ranked with each clinician’s subjective change in score, only 2 were among the top 3 for the majority of clinicians. Asymmetry of vertical head movement between contralateral forelimb stance phases and the point of maximum hoof height during swing decreased as lameness subjectively improved.
Mild lameness may be difficult to evaluate during treadmill locomotion. Although clinicians were more repeatable in their subjective evaluation of lameness than interns or residents, they were not more reliable at detecting the true state of lameness.
Lack of agreement between clinician scoring of mild lameness emphasizes the need to use more objective measures for quantifying lameness. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1370–1377)