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  • Author or Editor: L. Metzger x
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To evaluate use of an artificial vascular graft as treatment for obstructions of the teat and mammary gland cisternae in lactating cattle.


Prospective clinical study.


14 lactating dairy cows.


After physical examination that included palpation, ultrasonography, evaluation of milk flow, and California mastitis test, each cow underwent surgical excision of obstructive tissue and implantation of a reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene vascular graft. Milk drained passively for 10 to 14 days after surgery. Follow-up evaluation was performed by telephone questionnaire of owners 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery regarding somatic cell count, time needed to milk affected quarter, compared with that of the contralateral quarter, and frequency of mastitis. After the subsequent nonlactation period and calving, milk flow was tested, using a quarter milking machine, and ultrasonographic examination of the affected teat was performed.


Milk could be obtained from affected quarters from all cows 14 days after surgery, from 13 (93%) cows 1 month after surgery, from 10 (71 %) cows 6 months after surgery, and from 3 (21 %) cows 12 months after surgery, but milk flow in these 3 cows was considerably reduced. This technique failed because of collapse of the implant (4 cows), chronic mastitis (1), migration of the implant (4), and ingrowth of obstructive tissue between the distal aspect of the implant and the ridges of mucous membrane that radiate from the internal orifice of the streak canal (4), or a combination of these.

Clinical Implications

Implantation of this vascular graft is a useful technique to restore teat patency for 6 months. A longer period of passive drainage of milk appears necessary for sufficient ingrowth of the graft. Lesions that extend to the distal most aspect of the teat cistern have a poor prognosis, because this area cannot be sufficiently overlapped by the graft. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212: 1432–1435)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To compare therapeutic benefits of intratumoral administration of cisplatin and bleomycin for squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelids in horses.


25 horses with 27 T2-stage periocular squamous cell carcinomas.


Horses were treated 4 times at 2-week intervals with a slow-release formulation of cisplatin (1 mg/cm3 of tissue) or bleomycin (1 IU/cm3 of tissue). A two-stage design was used to minimize the sample size in each treatment arm.


The local control rate at 1 year for lesions treated with cisplatin was 93 ± 6%, and with bleomycin was 78 ± 10%. Difference in local control duration between the 2 treatment groups was not significantly different. A high tumor proliferative fraction index value was associated with a higher local (in-field) control rate, but also with a higher risk of marginal and regional recurrences. Tumors with a low proliferative fraction index value (< 28%) had 9.5-times higher (P = 0.0411) risk of recurrence than those with a high index value. Local acute reactions were similar in the 2 treatment groups, and chronic reactions were not observed.


Cisplatin and bleomycin were effective anticancer agents for carcinoma of the eyelid in horses. Based on therapeutic benefit and treatment cost, cisplatin was found to be a better choice for intratumoral chemotherapy of eyelid carcinomas.

Clinical Relevance

Results of this study confirm the value of intratumoral chemotherapy, using cisplatin, for treatment of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in horses. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:431–436)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research