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Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

An 11-month-old sexually intact male red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) was examined because of bilateral radial and ulnar fractures.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Radiography of the forelimbs revealed bilateral, short oblique fractures in the proximal to mid diaphyses of the radii and ulnae. Fractures were overriding and moderately displaced. Wider than expected gaps were evident in the humeroulnar and humeroradial joints bilaterally. Although several physes remained open, no proximal radial physis was radiographically evident.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Dual bone fixation was performed bilaterally, and dynamic luxation of the left radial head was identified and stabilized intraoperatively. Although satisfactory function of both forelimbs was evident at 8 weeks and 26 months after surgery, a persistent gait abnormality affecting the right forelimb was noted. Twenty-six months after surgery, radiography revealed bilateral proximal radial physes and resolution of the abnormally wide gaps in the humeroradial and humeroulnar joints. Despite dual bone fixation, synostoses formed bilaterally and may have contributed to the persistent lameness in the kangaroo's right forelimb.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Veterinarians treating kangaroos should be aware of difficulties in determining skeletal maturity and planning fracture stabilization because of potential differences in skeletal growth and fracture healing, compared with other species. We described critical issues observed in the treatment and outcome of the kangaroo of the present report and provided lessons learned as well as potential explanations of these issues to facilitate future treatment of kangaroos with forelimb fractures.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The chemotactic activity of turkey peritoneal macrophages in response to an atherosclerotic plaque extract from a hypertensive strain of turkeys was determined. Atherosclerotic plaque extract stimulated macrophage chemotaxis, whereas normal aortic extract did not stimulate macrophage chemotaxis. However, differences were not revealed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of extracts of atherosclerotic plaque and normal aorta. Chemotactic activity was diminished with pronase treatment, suggesting the chemoattractant is a protein. Seemingly, atherosclerotic plaque of turkeys contains a macrophage chemotaxin.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate effects of laparoscopic-assisted incisional gastropexy (LAIG) on gastric motility in dogs by use of a wireless motility device (WMD).

ANIMALS

10 healthy client-owned large or giant-breed dogs.

PROCEDURES

10 dogs owned by clients interested in prophylactic LAIG were enrolled. To determine effects of LAIG on gastrointestinal motility in dogs during the nonfed state, each dog was evaluated by use of a noninvasive WMD before and > 4 weeks after LAIG. All dogs underwent LAIG, with or without concurrent elective gonadectomy. Data obtained before and after LAIG were analyzed by use of proprietary software to determine the gastric emptying time, small bowel transit time, large bowel transit time, whole bowel transit time, and motility index.

RESULTS

No changes in variables were detected between measurements obtained before and after prophylactic LAIG.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In this study, prophylactic LAIG did not have an effect on gastrointestinal motility. The WMD was tolerated well by all dogs and appeared to be a safe and effective method for evaluating gastrointestinal motility in this population of dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe the clinical signs, diagnostic findings, surgical management, and outcome in dogs with splenic liposarcoma.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—13 client-owned dogs with splenic liposarcoma.

Procedures—Medical and pathology records of dogs with a histopathologic diagnosis of splenic liposarcoma from 2002 to 2012 were reviewed for the following data: clinical signs, CBC, biochemical profile, thoracic and abdominal imaging, surgical management, histologic grade, and outcome (local recurrence, distant metastasis, and survival time). Telephone interviews were conducted with referring veterinarians.

Results—The median survival time (MST) was 623 days (range, 1 to 1,283 days). In 5 dogs that died of splenic liposarcoma, survival times ranged from 42 to 369 days. Metastasis at the time of surgery was a negative prognostic indicator: the MST was 45 days for dogs with metastasis and 767 days for dogs without metastasis. Dogs with grade 1 splenic liposarcoma had a significantly greater MST (1,009 days), compared with dogs with grade 2 or 3 splenic liposarcoma (MST, 206 and 74 days, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results confirmed that splenic liposarcoma is a rare differential diagnosis in dogs with a splenic mass. Survival time was influenced by preoperative clinical stage and histologic grade.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare duration of surgery, recurrence rate, and survival time between cats with idiopathic chylothorax treated with thoracic duct ligation (TDL) plus subphrenic pericardiectomy (SPC) and those treated with TDL, SPC, and cisterna chyli ablation (CCA).

DESIGN Retrospective case series with nested cohort study.

ANIMALS 22 client-owned cats surgically treated for idiopathic chylothorax from 2009 through 2014.

PROCEDURES Patient and surgery data were collected from the medical records. Recurrence of chylothorax and survival time were assessed by medical record review and client interview. Comparisons were made between cats treated with TDL plus SPC (TDL-SPC group) and those treated with TDL, SPC, and CCA (TDL-SPC-CCA group).

RESULTS 15 cats were treated with TDL plus SPC, and 7 were treated with TDL, SPC, and CCA. Median duration of surgery was significantly briefer for the TDL-SPC group (80 minutes; range, 55 to 175 minutes) than for the TDL-SPC-CCA group (125 minutes; range, 105 to 205 minutes). Five cats (2 in the TDL-SPC group and 3 in the TDL-SPC-CCA group) had persistent pleural effusion 4 weeks after surgery. Chylothorax recurred in 2 cats (1/group). Median survival time in the TDL-SPC group was 774 days (range, 3 to 2,844 days) and in the TDL-SPC-CCA group was 380 days (range, 11 to 815 days); these values did not differ significantly.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Addition of CCA to the surgical treatment approach for cats with idiopathic chylothorax was associated with a significantly longer duration of surgery with no better outcome than achieved with TDL plus SPC alone.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

A single dose of digoxin was injected, iv, into 5 mature male turkeys (0.066 mg/kg of body weight), 8 male ducks (0.066 mg/kg), and 6 roosters (0.33 mg/kg). Twenty-three serial venous blood samples were collected before (baseline) and after the administration of digoxin to turkeys, ducks, and roosters. Plasma concentrations of digoxin were determined in duplicate by a radioimmunoassay that was validated for avian species. The plasma concentrations were best fitted by a 3 (turkeys, ducks)- and 2 (roosters)- compartment open model, with first-order elimination from the central compartment. Significant (P < 0.05) kinetic differences were determined among species. Mean half-life (t½) for ducks, roosters, and turkeys were 8.30 ± 2.70 (mean ± SD), 6.67 ± 3.50, and 23.7 ± 4.8 hours, respectively. The volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) was 14.7 ± 2.9, 3.13 ± 0.49, and 2.27 ± 0.36 L/kg, and total body clearance (cl) of drug was 1.54 ± 0.43, 0.461 ± 0.187, and 0.136 ± 0.022 L/h/kg for ducks, roosters, and turkeys, respectively. The mean residence time was 10.3 ± 3.9, 8.37 ± 4.97, and 16.8 ± 2.2 hours, respectively. Volume of distribution at steady state and cl in ducks were several fold higher than that in turkeys. The terminal half-life of digoxin determined for ducks and roosters in this study was considerably shorter than those previously reported for several mammalian species.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Of 82 dogs with thyroid carcinoma seen between January 1981 and October 1989, 20 had freely movable tumors without evidence of metastasis and were treated with surgical excision alone. Uncensored mean and median survival times for these 20 dogs were both 20.5 months. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, which censors for nontumor-related deaths and dogs lost to follow-up, indicated that median survival time was greater than 36 months. Seven dogs died of tumor-related causes: 2 died because of metastasis or local recurrence of the tumor, 5 died of treatment-related complications (eg, laryngeal paralysis, hypocalcemia, tracheostomy complications). Eight dogs died of unrelated causes; 1 dog was lost to follow-up at 26 months after surgery; 3 dogs were alive 19, 24, and 26 months after surgery. Cause of death could not be determined in the remaining dog. Long-term survival is possible following surgical removal of mobile thyroid carcinomas in dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Six healthy mature horses were orally administered a single dose of phenobarbital (26 mg/kg of body weight), then multiple doses (13 mg/kg) orally for 42 consecutive days. Seventeen venous blood samples were collected from each horse after the single dose study and again after the last dose on day 42. Plasma phenobarbital concentration was determined by use of a fluorescence assay validated for horses. Additional blood samples (n = 11) were collected on days 8 and 25 to determine peak and trough concentrations, as well as total body clearance. Phenobarbital disposition followed a one-compartment model. Mean kinetic variables after single and repeated orally administered doses (42 days) were: elimination half-life = 24.2 ± 4.7 and 11.2 ± 2.3 hours, volume of distribution = 0.960 ± 0.060 and 0.914 ± 0.119 L/kg, and clearance = 28.2 ± 5.1 and 57.3 ± 9.6 ml/h/kg, respectively. Results indicated that significant (P < 0.05) difference in half-life and oral clearance existed between single and repeated dosing. The significant decrease in half-life after repeated dosing with phenobarbital may be indicative of enzyme induction. Significant difference was not observed between baseline serum enzyme concentration and concentration measured on day 42, except for γ-glutamyltransferase activity, which was significantly increased on day 42 in 3 of the 6 horses. On the basis of increases in oral clearance observed over 42 days, dose adjustments may be required. By days 25 to 42, pharmacokinetic values indicated that dosages of phenobarbital between 25 and 27 mg/kg administered orally every 24 hours may be needed to maintain steady state plasma concentration of phenobarbital at 20 μg/ml of plasma in mature horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Healthy mature roosters (n = 10) were given gentamicin (5 mg/kg of body weight, IV) and, 30 days later, another dose im Serum concentrations of gentamicin were determined over 60 hours after each drug dosing, using a radioimmunoassay. Using nonlinear least-square regression methods, the combined data of IV and im treatments were best fitted by a 2-compartment open model. The mean distribution phase half-life was 0.203 ± 0.075 hours (mean ± SD) and the terminal half-life was 3.38 ± 0.62 hours. The volume of the central compartment was 0.0993 ± 0.0097 L/kg, volume of distribution at steady state was 0.209 ± 0.013 L/kg, and the total body clearance was 46.5 ± 7.9 ml/h/kg.

Intramuscular absorption was rapid, with a half-life for absorption of 0.281 ± 0.081 hours. The extent of im absorption was 95 ± 18%. Maximal serum concentration of 20.68 ± 2.10 μg/ml was detected at 0.62 ± 0.18 hours after the dose. Kinetic calculations predicted that IM injection of gentamicin at a dosage of 4 mg/kg, q 12 h, and 1.5 mg/kg, q 8 h, would provide average steady-state serum concentrations of 6.82 and 3.83 μg/ml, with minimal steady-state serum concentrations of 1.54 and 1.50 μg/ml and maximal steady-state serum concentrations of 18.34 and 7.70 μg/ml, respectively.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research