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To determine whether an estradiol-progesterone (EP) growth implant would have an effect on febrile responses and on the catabolic component of Eimeria bovis infection.


27 Holstein bull calves.


Calves were assigned to treatment groups as: control (n = 5), EP implant (EP, n = 5), E bovis-inoculated (coccidia: C, n = 7), pair fed (n = 4), or EP plus E bovis-inoculated coccidia (EP/C, n = 6) groups. Calves were provided subcutaneous EP implants at 8 weeks of age, and were inoculated with 2 × 105 oocysts of E bovis at 11 weeks of age. Body weight was measured on postinoculation day (PID) 0, 14, and 28. Rectal temperature and food intake were determined and fecal samples were collected daily from PID 15 to 28. Blood samples were collected on PID 24 for analysis of CD2+, CD4+, and CD8+ antigens and plasma insulin-like growth factor I concentration. Blood samples were collected at 15-minute intervals for measurement of pulsatile growth hormone release.


Group-EP/C calves had fever for 2 days versus 5 days for group-C calves (P < 0.05). These calves had diarrhea for fewer days than did their group-C counterparts (P < 0.05). Fibrinogen and glucose values were high in group-C (P < 0.05) but not group-EP/C calves. The latter had positive weight gain from PID 14 to 28, whereas group-C calves had weight loss (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin-like growth factor I concentration was reduced by infection (P < 0.05). EP-treated noninfected calves had increased numbers of CD2+, CD4+, and CD8+ blood mononuclear cells (P < 0.05).


EP has a protective effect in calves infected with E bovis. This may relate to changes in immune function induced by EP.

Clinical Relevance

Treatment of calves with EP could offer some protection against the often severe wasting and debilitation associated with E bovis infection. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:891–896)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Once daily for 3 days, laser Doppler flowmetry was used in 5 healthy, nonsedated adult horses to evaluate coronary band and laminar microcirculatory blood flow (mbf) in both forelimbs. The coronary band had significantly (P < 005) higher mbf than did the laminae on the days evaluated. Significant variation in mbf was not found over the 3-day measurement period in any one site. Significant (P < 0.05) variation was found in coronary band mbf among horses. This variation was not observed in laminar mbf. On occlusion of the digital arteries at the level of the fetlock, marked decrease in coronary band and laminar mbf was observed. Twenty minutes after iv administration of acetylpromazine, marked increase in coronary band and laminar mbf was observed. The technique was easily performed in standing nonsedated horses, did not inflict discomfort, lacked complications, and measurements were repeatable. This technique provides an index of digital mbf, either intermittently or continuously, avoiding introduction of invasive variables associated with other techniques.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To characterize clinical signs, clinicopathologic features, treatments, and survival in dogs with naturally acquired foodborne aflatoxicosis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—72 dogs that consumed aflatoxin-contaminated commercial dog food.

Procedures—Medical records of affected dogs were reviewed. Between December 2005 and March 2006, dogs were identified as having foodborne aflatoxin hepatotoxicosis on the basis of the history of consumption of contaminated food or characteristic histopathologic lesions (subject dog or a recently deceased dog in the same household or kennel). Recorded information included signalment, clinical features, clinicopathologic test results, treatments, and survival. Data were analyzed by survival status.

Results—Most dogs were of large breeds from breeding kennels. No significant differences were found in age or weight between 26 (36%) survivor dogs and 46 (64%) nonsurvivor dogs. Severity of clinical signs varied widely; 7 dogs died abruptly. In order of onset, clinical features included anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea (melena, hematochezia), abdominal effusion, peripheral edema, and terminal encephalopathy and hemorrhagic diathesis. Common clinicopathologic features included coagulopathic and electrolyte disturbances, hypoproteinemia, increased serum liver enzyme activities, hyperbilirubinemia, and hypocholesterolemia. Cytologic hepatocellular lipid vacuolation was confirmed in 11 dogs examined. In comparisons of clinicopathologic test results between survivor and nonsurvivor dogs, only granular cylindruria (7/21 dogs) consistently predicted death. Best early markers of aflatoxicosis were low plasma activities of anticoagulant proteins (protein C, antithrombin) and hypocholesterolemia. Despite aggressive treatment, many but not all severely affected dogs died.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serum liver enzyme activities and bilirubin concentration were unreliable early markers of aflatoxin hepatotoxicosis in dogs. Hypocholesterolemia and decreased plasma protein C and antithrombin activities may function as exposure biomarkers.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association