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  • Author or Editor: L. A. King x
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Summary

Medical records were reviewed for 93 dogs with bacterial pneumonia from which transtracheal aspiration samples were obtained for culturing of Mycoplasma spp and aerobic bacteria. On the basis of culture results, there were 65 Mycoplasma-positive dogs, including 7 dogs for which only Mycoplasma spp were isolated, and 28 Mycoplasma-negative dogs. Most dogs were > 5 years old, and differences in breed or gender distribution among the 3 groups of dogs were not detected. Hematologic and serum biochemical analysis results did not differ significantly between Mycoplasma-positive and Mycoplasma-negative dogs. Fifty-three of 93 (57%) dogs had a concurrent medical problem that may have predisposed them to developing bacterial pneumonia as a sequelae to aspiration or immunosuppression. Mycoplasma-positive dogs were significantly (P < 0.005) more likely to have > 1 species of bacteria isolated from their transtracheal aspiration samples. Clinical outcome was favorable when antimicrobials were selected on the basis of antimicrobial susceptibility results for the other bacterial isolates and not on results of the antimicrobial activity against Mycoplasma spp. It could not be determined whether Mycoplasma spp were primary pathogens or only opportunists.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine prevalence of, and risk factors for, odontociastic resorptive lesions in cats seen in a private veterinary practice population.

Design

Population-based cross-sectional study.

Animals

145 cats more than 1 year of age that underwent anesthesia for various procedures.

Procedure

Cats were evaluated under anesthesia for odontociastic resorptive lesions. Lesions were graded, using a published classification system. Clients completed a standardized survey on signalment, indoor-outdoor status, medications, diet during the past year, number of daily feedings, treat feeding, source of water, and oral hygiene practices.

Results

48% of cats had resorptive lesions. Lesions were most commonly mandibular, and premolars were more often affected. Compared with cats without oral lesions, cats with oral lesions were more likely to be older, female, taking medications, drinking city (vs well) water, and playing less often with toys. In addition, cats without oral lesions were more likely to have owners who cleaned their teeth daily or twice a week and to be fed diets with higher magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, and potassium contents. Frequency of teeth cleaning was inversely related to the development of odontociastic resorptive lesions. Variables significantly associated with oral lesions were age and magnesium content of diet.

Clinical Implications

Older cats should be examined closely for odontociastic resorptive lesions. Clients should be advised on methods and frequency of teeth cleaning in cats to prevent lesions. Dietary nutrients may play a role in the development of odontociastic resorptive lesions in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212:392-395)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To test the hypothesis that breed, sex, and age of cats, and anatomic location of uroliths are risk factors for calcium oxalate and magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis.

Design

Retrospective case-control study.

Sample Population

Records of 3,498 feline urolith accessions submitted between September 1982 and September 1992.

Procedure

Mineral composition of feline uroliths was quantitatively analyzed. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for breed, sex, age, and urolith location as risk factors for calcium oxalate and magnesium ammonium phosphate urolith formation. The population at risk was defined as all cats for which that type of urolith had been submitted. The control population was all cats for which uroliths had been submitted, excluding cats with the type of urolith being evaluated.

Results

Burmese, Persian, and Himalayan breeds were at higher risk for developing calcium oxalate uroliths, but at reduced risk for developing magnesium ammonium phosphate uroliths. Compared with females, neutered male cats had a higher risk for developing calcium oxalate uroliths, but a reduced risk for developing magnesium ammonium phosphate uroliths. The risk for calcium oxalate urolith formation increased with age. One- to 2-year-old female cats had the highest risk for magnesium ammonium phosphate uroliths. Uroliths removed from the kidneys were more likely to be composed of calcium oxalate than of magnesium ammonium phosphate.

Clinical Implications

Breed, sex, and age of cats, and anatomic location of uroliths should be considered when evaluating risk of calcium oxalate and magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis in urolith-forming cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996; 208:547–551)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To compare the clinical and clinicopathologic findings in and prognosis for cats with lymphocytic portal hepatitis (LPH) versus cats with acute or chronic cholangiohepatitis (CH).

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

25 cats with LPH; 16 cats with CH (7 acute, 9 chronic).

Procedure

Cats with LPH and CH were selected by evaluating records from liver biopsy specimens submitted to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Teaching Hospital during a 10-year period. Clinical and clinicopathologic data were retrieved.

Results

Cats with CH had higher segmented and band neutrophil counts, alanine aminotransferase activities, and total bilirubin concentrations than did cats with LPH. Cats with acute CH had higher segmented and band neutrophil counts and lower serum alkaline phosphatase activities and total bilirubin concentrations than did cats with chronic CH. Twelve of 14 cats with LPH or CH had coarse or nodular texture to the liver on ultrasonography, with loss of portal vein wall clarity noticed in 4 of 8 cats with LPH. Sixteen of 23 cats with LPH and 8 of 15 cats with CH survived > 1 year. Of those cats living < 1 year, all cats with LPH and 5 of 7 cats with CH had a serious concurrent illness that may have been responsible for their deaths.

Clinical Implications

LPH and CH can be detected and tentatively differentiated through evaluation of clinical laboratory test results, but histologic evaluation of liver specimens is necessary for definitive differentiation. Survival time was good regardless of the type of inflammatory liver disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999:214:513–516)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

In this study, we compared hepatic ultrastructure in healthy cats, in cats with severe hepatic lipidosis, and in cats with experimentally induced, chronic, extrahepatic bile duct occlusion. Ultrastructural features unique to the lipidosis syndrome included an apparent reduction in number of peroxisomes and alteration in their morphologic features. The quantity of endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes, and lysosomes was subjectively reduced, and paucity of cytosolic glycogen was observed. Bile canaliculi appeared collapsed because of cytosolic distention with lipid. Mitochondria were reduced in number and were markedly pleomorphic. Cristae assumed a variety of shapes, lengths, and orientations. Ultrastructural features of bile duct occlusion were similar to those described in other species and differed from those in cats with hepatic lipidosis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize injuries and describe medical management and clinical outcomes of goats, sheep, and pigs treated at a veterinary medical teaching hospital for burn injuries sustained during wildfires.

ANIMALS

Goats (n = 9), sheep (12), and pigs (7) that sustained burn injuries from wildfires.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were searched to identify goats, sheep, and pigs that had burn injuries associated with California wildfires in 2006, 2015, and 2018. Data regarding signalment, physical examination findings, treatments, clinical outcomes, time to discharge from the hospital, and reasons for death or euthanasia were recorded.

RESULTS

The eyes, ears, nose, mouth, hooves, perineum, and ventral aspect of the abdomen were most commonly affected in both goats and sheep. In pigs, the ventral aspect of the abdomen, distal limb extremities, ears, and tail were most commonly affected. The median (range) time to discharge from the hospital for goats and pigs was 11 (3 to 90) and 85.5 (54 to 117) days, respectively. One of 9 goats, 12 of 12 sheep, and 5 of 7 pigs died or were euthanized. Laminitis and devitalization of distal limb extremities were common complications (13/28 animals) and a common reason for considering euthanasia in sheep and pigs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Burn injuries in small ruminants and pigs required prolonged treatment in some cases. Results suggested prognosis for survival may be more guarded for sheep and pigs with burn injuries than for goats; however, further research is needed to confirm these findings.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Eighteen dogs undergoing lateral thoracotomy at the left fifth intercostal space were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 postoperative analgesic treatment groups of 6 dogs each as follows: group A, morphine, 1.0 mg/kg of body weight, im; group B, 0.5% bupivacaine, 1.5 mg/kg given interpleurally; and group C, morphine, 1.0 mg/kg given interpleurally. Heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, arterial blood gas tensions, alveolar-arterial oxygen differences, rectal temperature, pain score, and pulmonary mechanics were recorded hourly for the first 8 hours after surgery, and at postoperative hours 12, 24, and 48. These values were compared with preoperative (control) values for each dog. Serum morphine and cortisol concentrations were measured at 10, 20, and 30 minutes, hours 1 to 8, and 12 hours after treatment administration.

All dogs had significant decreases in pHa, PaO2 , and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, and significant increases in PaCO2 and alveolar-arterial oxygen differences in the postoperative period, but these changes were less severe in group-B dogs. Decreases of 50% in lung compliance, and increases of 100 to 200% in work of breathing and of 185 to 383% in pulmonary resistance were observed in all dogs after surgery. Increases in work of breathing were lower, and returned to preoperative values earlier in group-B dogs. The inspiratory time-to-total respiratory time ratio was significantly higher in group-B dogs during post-operative hours 5 to 8, suggesting improved analgesia. Blood pressure was significantly lower in group-A dogs for the first postoperative hour. Significant decreases in rectal temperature were observed in all dogs after surgery, and hypothermia was prolonged in dogs of groups A and C. Significant differences in pain score were not observed between treatment groups. Cortisol concentration was high in all dogs after anesthesia and surgery, and was significantly increased in group-B dogs at hours 4 and 8. Significant differences in serum morphine concentration between groups A and C were only observed 10 minutes after treatment administration. In general, significant differences in physiologic variables between groups A and C were not observed.

Results of the study indicate that anesthesia and thoracotomy are associated with significant alterations in pulmonary function and lung mechanics. Interpleurally administered bupivacaine appears to be associated with fewer blood gas alterations and earlier return to normal of certain pulmonary function values. Interpleural administration of morphine does not appear to provide any advantages, in terms of analgesia or pulmonary function, compared with its im administration.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research