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  • Author or Editor: Lídia R. Teixeira x
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Objective—To evaluate the effects of a dexmedetomidine constant rate infusion (CRI) and atropine on changes in global perfusion variables induced by hemorrhage and volume replacement (VR) in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.

Animals—8 adult dogs.

Procedures—Each dog was anesthetized twice, with a 2-week interval between anesthetic sessions. Anesthesia was maintained with 1.3 times the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane with and without dexmedetomidine (1.6 μg/kg, IV bolus, followed by 2 μg/kg/h, CRI). Dogs were mechanically ventilated and received an atracurium neuromuscular blockade during both sessions. During anesthesia with isoflurane and dexmedetomidine, atropine was administered 30 minutes before baseline measurements were obtained. After baseline data were recorded, 30% of the total blood volume was progressively withdrawn and VR was achieved with an equal proportion of autologous blood.

Results—Following hemorrhage, cardiac index, oxygen delivery index, and mixed-venous oxygen saturation were significantly decreased and the oxygen extraction ratio was significantly increased from baseline. The anaerobic threshold was not achieved during either anesthetic session. When dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane and dexmedetomidine, they had a significantly lower heart rate, cardiac index, and mixed-venous oxygen saturation during VR than they did when anesthetized with isoflurane alone. Plasma lactate concentration, mixed venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference, base excess, and anion gap were unaltered by hemorrhage and VR and did not differ between anesthetic sessions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the use of a dexmedetomidine CRI combined with atropine in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs that underwent volume-controlled hemorrhage followed by VR did not compromise global perfusion sufficiently to result in anaerobic metabolism.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the effects of remifentanil on isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (ISOMAC) in dogs.

Animals—6 adult mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane on 2 occasions. During the first set of experiments, ISOMAC was determined before remifentanil infusion (baseline), during constant rate infusion (CRI) of remifentanil (0.15, 0.30, 0.60, and 0.90 μg/kg/min), and 80 minutes after remifentanil infusion. After a 1-week washout period, dogs received a CRI of remifentanil (0.15 μg/kg/min) and ISOMAC was redetermined 2, 4, and 6 hours after commencing the infusion.

Results—Mean ± SD baseline ISOMAC was 1.24 ± 0.18%. Remifentanil infusion (0.15, 0.30, 0.60, and 0.90 μg/kg/min) decreased ISOMAC by 43 ± 10%, 59 ± 10%, 66 ± 9%, and 71 ± 9%, respectively. The ISOMAC values determined during the 0.30, 0.60, and 0.90 μg/kg/min infusion rates did not differ from each other, but these values were significantly lower, compared with the 0.15 μg/kg/min infusion rate. The ISOMAC recorded after remifentanil infusion (1.09 ± 0.18%) did not differ from baseline ISOMAC. There was no change in ISOMAC throughout the 6-hour period of a CRI of remifentanil.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Remifentanil decreased ISOMAC in a dose-related fashion; the reduction in ISOMAC was stable over the course of a prolonged CRI (6 hours). A dose of 0.30 μg of remifentanil/kg/min resulted in nearly maximal isoflurane-sparing effect in dogs; a ceiling effect was observed at higher infusion rates.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To evaluate pain intensity and kinetic variables in dogs with hip dysplasia (HD) treated with acupuncture, carprofen, or a placebo.

DESIGN Randomized, controlled clinical study.

ANIMALS 54 HD-affected dogs and 16 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES Seven HD-affected dogs were removed from the study. Dogs with HD were treated in a blinded manner for 30 days with acupuncture (once weekly for 5 sessions; n = 15), carprofen (4.4 mg/kg [2.0 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h; n = 16), or placebo capsules containing lactose (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h; n = 16). Dogs were evaluated 2 weeks and immediately before (baseline) and 2, 4, and 6 weeks after the onset of treatment. Owners evaluated the dogs' pain intensity with 2 validated questionnaires and a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain and evaluated degree of lameness with a VAS for locomotion. Kinetics of the hind limbs were also evaluated. Sixteen HD-free dogs were used to assess the evaluation protocol.

RESULTS Owners' assessments revealed that outcomes of the 3 treatments did not differ significantly. The Canine Brief Pain Inventory and VAS pain intensity assessments were decreased from baseline at weeks 4 and 6, respectively, but only in acupuncture-treated dogs. The locomotion VAS values were decreased at week 4 in acupuncture-treated and carprofen-treated dogs. Kinetic evaluation findings did not differ among the groups or over time.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Neither acupuncture nor carprofen was significantly different from placebo. Acupuncture and carprofen reduced the degree of subjectively evaluated lameness, and acupuncture was associated with a decrease in validated chronic pain scores.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association