Objective—To compare ultrasonographic, CT, and surgical findings in dogs infested with giant kidney worms (Dioctophyme renale).
Animals—15 crossbred dogs infected with D renale.
Procedures—Immediately after ultrasonography was performed with dogs in dorsal recumbency, sequential transverse images of the abdomen were acquired with a helical CT scanner. After plain CT, contrast CT was performed with a nonionic iodinated contrast agent. Subsequently, exploratory celiotomy was performed.
Results—In the corticomedullary area of the right kidney of 12 dogs, ultrasonography revealed several ring-like structures with an echogenic wall and anechoic central area in the transverse plane and arrayed as bands in the longitudinal plane. Similar structures were observed in the abdominal cavity of 10 dogs. In 13 dogs, CT revealed loss of corticomedullary differentiation in the right kidney, with discrete uptake of contrast material in the periphery of the kidney, and several ring-like or elongated structures with a hyperdense wall and hypodense center. In 11 dogs, the same structures were observed free in the abdominal cavity. Surgery revealed that 13 dogs had a damaged right kidney that required nephrectomy. Parasites were found free in the abdominal cavity of 7 dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasonography and CT were effective imaging methods for detecting D renale in the kidney and less effective for detecting parasites in the abdominal cavity. Care should be taken to avoid erroneously interpreting normal structures as parasites, especially in the abdominal cavity.
Objective—To evaluate the effects of remifentanil on isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (ISOMAC) in dogs.
Animals—6 adult mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane on 2 occasions. During the first set of experiments, ISOMAC was determined before remifentanil infusion (baseline), during constant rate infusion (CRI) of remifentanil (0.15, 0.30, 0.60, and 0.90 μg/kg/min), and 80 minutes after remifentanil infusion. After a 1-week washout period, dogs received a CRI of remifentanil (0.15 μg/kg/min) and ISOMAC was redetermined 2, 4, and 6 hours after commencing the infusion.
Results—Mean ± SD baseline ISOMAC was 1.24 ± 0.18%. Remifentanil infusion (0.15, 0.30, 0.60, and 0.90 μg/kg/min) decreased ISOMAC by 43 ± 10%, 59 ± 10%, 66 ± 9%, and 71 ± 9%, respectively. The ISOMAC values determined during the 0.30, 0.60, and 0.90 μg/kg/min infusion rates did not differ from each other, but these values were significantly lower, compared with the 0.15 μg/kg/min infusion rate. The ISOMAC recorded after remifentanil infusion (1.09 ± 0.18%) did not differ from baseline ISOMAC. There was no change in ISOMAC throughout the 6-hour period of a CRI of remifentanil.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Remifentanil decreased ISOMAC in a dose-related fashion; the reduction in ISOMAC was stable over the course of a prolonged CRI (6 hours). A dose of 0.30 μg of remifentanil/kg/min resulted in nearly maximal isoflurane-sparing effect in dogs; a ceiling effect was observed at higher infusion rates.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate pain intensity and kinetic variables in dogs with hip dysplasia (HD) treated with acupuncture, carprofen, or a placebo.
DESIGN Randomized, controlled clinical study.
ANIMALS 54 HD-affected dogs and 16 healthy dogs.
PROCEDURES Seven HD-affected dogs were removed from the study. Dogs with HD were treated in a blinded manner for 30 days with acupuncture (once weekly for 5 sessions; n = 15), carprofen (4.4 mg/kg [2.0 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h; n = 16), or placebo capsules containing lactose (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h; n = 16). Dogs were evaluated 2 weeks and immediately before (baseline) and 2, 4, and 6 weeks after the onset of treatment. Owners evaluated the dogs' pain intensity with 2 validated questionnaires and a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain and evaluated degree of lameness with a VAS for locomotion. Kinetics of the hind limbs were also evaluated. Sixteen HD-free dogs were used to assess the evaluation protocol.
RESULTS Owners' assessments revealed that outcomes of the 3 treatments did not differ significantly. The Canine Brief Pain Inventory and VAS pain intensity assessments were decreased from baseline at weeks 4 and 6, respectively, but only in acupuncture-treated dogs. The locomotion VAS values were decreased at week 4 in acupuncture-treated and carprofen-treated dogs. Kinetic evaluation findings did not differ among the groups or over time.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Neither acupuncture nor carprofen was significantly different from placebo. Acupuncture and carprofen reduced the degree of subjectively evaluated lameness, and acupuncture was associated with a decrease in validated chronic pain scores.