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  • Author or Editor: Kyriacos Athanasiou x
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Abstract

Objective

To measure the intrinsic material properties of scapulohumeral joint cartilage in adult dogs and determine whether regional differences exist within or between the humeral and glenoid cartilages.

Samples

Paired shoulder joints from 7 clinically normal adult dogs.

Procedure

An automated indentation apparatus was used to obtain the intrinsic mechanical properties of the cartilage at 7 sites on each joint surface.

Results

Topographic variations in mechanical properties of the glenoid and humeral cartilages were observed. The largest aggregate modulus (HA) for the humerus was seen at the caudocentral site (0.92 MPa) and for the scapula was seen at the centrocenter site (0.84 MPa). The mean shear modulus (μ) of humeral cartilage (0.23 MPa) was significantly greater than that of the glenoid cartilage (0.19 MPa). The mean Poisson's ratio (ν) of humeral cartilage (0.24) was significantly smaller than that for the glenoid cartilage (0.29). Mean humeral cartilage aggregate modulus (0.71 MPa) was larger than the value for glenoid cartilage (0.67 MPa), but these differences were not significant. There were no significant differences in the compressive stiffness of the opposing cartilage in the canine scapulohumeral joint.

Conclusions

Differences in mechanical properties between opposing humeral and glenoid cartilages are not a cause of cartilage injury in the scapulohumeral joint of adult dogs. The mechanical properties of cartilage from young dogs with open physes and incomplete subchondral bone plates may be different from those of adult dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:949–953)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine biomechanical and biochemical properties of the medial meniscus in a semistable stifle model and in clinical patients and to determine the effect of canine recombinant somatotropin hormone (STH) on those properties.

Animals—22 healthy adult dogs and 12 dogs with meniscal damage secondary to cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture.

Procedure—The CCL was transected in 15 dogs, and stifles were immediately stabilized. Implants releasing 4 mg of STH/d were placed in 7 dogs, and 8 received sham implants. Seven dogs were used as untreated controls. Force plate analysis was performed before surgery and 2, 5, and 10 weeks after surgery. After 10 weeks, dogs were euthanatized, and menisci from surgical and contralateral stifles were harvested. The torn caudal horn of the medial meniscus in dogs with CCL rupture comprised the clinical group. Creep indentation determined aggregate modulus (HA), Poisson's ratio (v), permeability (k), and percentage recovery (%R). Water content (%W), collagen content (C), sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content, and collagen type-I (cI) and -II (cII) immunoreactivity were also determined.

Results—Surgical and clinical groups had lower HA, k, %R, C, sGAG, cI, and cII and higher %W than the nonsurgical group. Surgical stifles with greater weight bearing had stiffer menisci than those bearing less weight. Collagen content was higher in the surgical group receiving STH than the surgical group without STH.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Acute stabilization and moderate weight bearing of the CCL-deficient stifle appear to protect stiffness of the medial meniscus. Normal appearing menisci from CCL-deficient stifles can have alterations in biomechanical and biochemical properties, which may contribute to meniscal failure. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:419–426)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe CT findings in dogs and cats with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—41 dogs and 17 cats.

Procedures—Medical records and CT images of the skull were reviewed for dogs and cats that were examined at a dentistry and oral surgery specialty practice between 2006 and 2011.

Results—Of 142 dogs and 42 cats evaluated, 41 dogs and 17 cats had CT findings consistent with a TMJ disorder. In dogs, the most common TMJ disorder was osteoarthritis; however, in most cases, there were other TMJ disorders present in addition to osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis was more frequently identified at the medial aspect rather than the lateral aspect of the TMJ, whereas the frequency of osteoarthritic involvement of the dorsal and ventral compartments did not differ significantly. In cats, fractures were the most common TMJ disorder, followed by osteoarthritis. Clinical signs were observed in all dogs and cats with TMJ fractures, dysplasia, ankylosis, luxation, and tumors; however, only 4 of 15 dogs and 2 of 4 cats with osteoarthritis alone had clinical signs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that TMJ disorders were frequently present in combination. Osteoarthritis was the most common TMJ disorder in dogs and the second most common TMJ disorder in cats. Computed tomography should be considered as a tool for the diagnosis of TMJ disorders in dogs and cats with suspected orofacial disorders and signs of pain. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013;242:69–75)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association