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  • Author or Editor: Kyoung-Jin Yoon x
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Objective—To document shedding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus in mammary gland secretions of experimentally inoculated sows, to evaluate effects of vaccination during gestation on virus shedding during the subsequent lactation, and to evaluate shedding of PRRS virus in milk of sows in commercial herds.

Animals—6 sows seronegative for PRRS virus were used for experiment 1, and 2 sows were retained for experiment 2. For experiment 3, 202 sows in commercial herds were used.

Procedure—In experiment 1, 2 sows were inoculated with PRRS virus, 2 sows were vaccinated with modified- live PRRS virus vaccine, and 2 sows served as control pigs. Mammary gland secretions were assayed for PRRS virus. In experiment 2, pregnant vaccinated sows from experiment 1 were vaccinated with another modified-live PRRS virus vaccine. Mammary gland secretions were assayed in the same manner as for experiment 1. For experiment 3, milk collected from 202 sows in commercial herds was assayed for PRRS virus.

Results—In experiment 1, PRRS virus was detected in mammary gland secretions of both vaccinated and 1 of 2 virus-inoculated sows. In experiment 2, virus was not detected in samples from either vaccinated sow. In experiment 3, all samples yielded negative results.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Naïve sows inoculated late in gestation shed PRRS virus in mammary secretions. Previous vaccination appeared to prevent shedding during the subsequent lactation. Results for samples obtained from sows in commercial herds suggested that virus shedding in mammary gland secretions of such sows is uncommon. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1876–1880)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective−To report the prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in calves and calf groups (ie, calves from the same farm) in beef breeding herds and evaluate the ability of biosecurity risk assessment questionnaires to identify calf groups with positive results for BVDV.

Design−Nonrandom survey.

Animals−12,030 calves born in spring from 102 operations.

Procedures−Cow-calf producers that voluntarily enrolled in a screening project submitted ear notch specimens from calves and answered a 29-question survey instrument. Ear notch specimens were tested for BVDV with an antigen-capture ELISA (ACE), and ear notch specimens with positive ACE results for BVDV were immediately retested by performing immunohistochemistry (IHC). Follow-up testing, 3 to 4 weeks after initial positive ACE results, was done by use of a second IHC test and virus isolation on a subsequently submitted ear notch specimen from the same calves to identify those that were persistently infected (PI).

Results−102 producers submitted ear notch specimens for BVDV screening. Initially, 24 of 12,030 calves had positive ACE results for BVDV. A second ear notch specimen was submitted for 20 of these 24 calves. Of 20 retested calves, 12 had positive ICH results for BVDV, confirming PI status. The 12 PI calves came from 4 calf groups (3 singletons and 1 calf group with 9 PI calves).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance−Prevalence of BVDV in calf groups was low, and questions designed to identify high-risk biosecurity behaviors had little value in identifying calf groups with positive results for BVDV.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association