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  • Author or Editor: Kyle G. Braund x
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SUMMARY

A morphologic and morphometric study was carried out on the facial nerve: to determine normal histologic data in myelinated fibers of clinically normal young adult dogs; to establish reference values for mean fiber diameter, and to delineate the relative diameter frequency distribution curve. Few degenerative changes were observed in single teased-nerve fibers and semithin cross-sectional nerve preparations. Statistical difference was not observed between left and right facial nerves. The distribution of fiber diameters in the facial nerve was unimodal. Mean ( ± sd) fiber diameter of the facial nerve was 3.92 ± 1.18 μm. Approximately 89% of fibers in the facial nerve had diameter between 3 and 6 μm. Fiber diameter ranged from 2 to 12 μm; however, < 1% of fibers had diameter > 8 μm.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

A histochemical and morphometric study of fiber types in a variety of skeletal muscles of healthy young adult cats was undertaken to provide normative data not available previously. Using a standardized system of nomenclature, fiber types 1, 2A, 2B, and 2C were identified in most cat muscles on the basis of myosin ATPase staining at pH 4.45. Type-2M fibers were present in temporalis (tem) and masseter (mas) muscles. Type-1 fibers predominated in medial head of triceps (mht) and soleus muscles. Type-2B fibers were dominant in biceps femoris, lateral head of gastrocnemius, cranial tibial, long head of triceps, and superficial digital flexor muscles; type-2A fibers were dominant in buccinator muscle samples; and type-2M fibers were dominant in tem and mas muscles. Numbers of type-2C fibers did not exceed 2 to 3% of the myofiber population in any muscle. In CT and LHT muscles, a gradient of fiber type distribution was observed, with significant (P < 0.05) increase in numbers of type-1 and type-2A fibers in deeper regions of the muscles. The distribution of fiber types was compartmentalized in mht and mas specimens. Diameter of type-2B fibers was significantly (P < 0.05) larger than that of type-1 and type-2A fibers in biceps femoris, lateral head of gastrocnemius, cranial tibial, long head of triceps, and superficial mht muscles. Diameter of type-2M fibers was significantly (P < 0.05) larger than that of type-1 fibers in tem and mas muscles. The soleus type-1 muscle fibers were the largest fibers encountered in any muscle. In mht muscle, fiber diameter of type-1 and type-2B fibers varied significantly (P < 0.05) in oxidative and glycolytic compartments. Variability coefficients were less than 200 in all muscles. In every muscle specimen, the number of fibers with internal nuclei was less than or equal to 2%.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Clinical, morphologic, and morphometric findings are reported in 14 young Dalmatians with laryngeal paralysis. Neurologic signs, including megaesophagus, were observed in 13 of 14 dogs. Electromyographic abnormalities included fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves in laryngeal, esophageal, facial, and distal appendicular muscles. Neurogenic atrophy was detected in intrinsic laryngeal and appendicular skeletal muscles. A diffuse, generalized polyneuropathy, dominated by axonal degeneration, was observed in recurrent laryngeal and appendicular peripheral nerves. Results of quantitative studies, using single teased fiber and cross-sectional nerve preparations, indicated that changes were more severe in distal parts of peripheral nerves, with preferential loss of medium sized (5.5 to 8 μm) and large-caliber (8.5 to 12 μm) myelinated nerve fibers. Ultrastructural alterations were observed in myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers. The term laryngeal paralysis-polyneuropathy complex is proposed for this apparent dying-back disorder, which is clinically, electrophysiologically, and pathologically different from laryngeal paralysis in young Bouvier des Flandres and Siberian Huskies. Prognosis for Dalmatians with laryngeal paralysis-polyneuropathy complex is guarded to poor. The condition is believed to be inherited.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research