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  • Author or Editor: Kyla F. Ortved x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effects of a single dose of the NSAIDs phenylbutazone, firocoxib, flunixin meglumine, and ketoprofen on concentrations of growth factors and cytokines in autologous protein solution (APS) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP).

ANIMALS

6 adult university-owned horses.

METHODS

For the first phase, 6 horses were randomized to receive ketoprofen (1,000 mg) or flunixin meglumine (500 mg) IV. Blood was obtained and processed for APS (Pro-Stride) and PRP (Restigen) before and 6 hours after administration of NSAIDs. Horses underwent a 2-week washout period, after which the protocol was repeated using a crossover design. For the second phase, following at least a 2-week washout period, the study protocol was repeated with phenylbutazone (1 g) or firocoxib (57 mg) administered orally. Plasma was collected 6 hours after administration for evaluation of drug concentrations, and APS and PRP were analyzed for concentrations of drug, platelets, leukocytes, and several growth factors and cytokines (PDGF, fibroblast growth factor, TGF-β1, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α) before and 6 hours after administration of NSAIDs using immunoassays.

RESULTS

There were no significant differences in concentrations of cytokines or growth factors before or after administration of any NSAID. There were significant differences in concentrations of leukocytes and platelets based on both product and time. NSAID concentrations in plasma were not significantly different from concentrations in APS and PRP.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

These results help guide clinicians on the appropriate use of these NSAIDs in conjunction with the processing of APS and PRP, which is unlikely to significantly alter the final product after single-dose administration.

Open access

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a biotherapeutic for osteoarthritis; however, manufacturing large quantities is not practical using traditional monolayer (2-D) culture. We aimed to examine the effects of 3-D and 2-D culture 2 types of media: Dulbecco modified Eagle medium and a commercially available medium (CM) on EV yield.

ANIMALS

Banked bone marrow–derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) from 6 healthy, young horses were used.

METHODS

4 microcarriers (collagen-coated polystyrene, uncoated polystyrene, collagen-coated dextran, and uncoated dextran) were tested in static and bioreactor cultures, and the optimal microcarrier was chosen. The BM-MSCs were inoculated into a bioreactor with collagen-coated dextran microcarriers at 5,000 cells/cm2 or onto culture dishes at 4,000 cells/cm2 in either Dulbecco modified Eagle medium or CM media. Supernatants were obtained for metabolite and pH analysis. The BM-MSCs were expanded until confluent (2-D) or for 7 days (3-D) when the 48-hour EV collection period commenced using EV-depleted media. Extracellular vesicles were isolated and characterized via nanoparticle tracking analysis, Western blot, transmission electron microscopy, and protein quantification. The BM-MSCs were harvested, quantified, and immunophenotyped.

RESULTS

The number of EVs isolated was not improved by 3-D culture or CM media, however, the CM 3-D condition improved the number of EVs produced per BM-MSC over the CM 2-D condition (mean ± SD: 306 ± 99 vs 37 ± 22, respectively). Glucose decreased and lactate and ammonium accumulated in 3-D culture. Surface markers of stemness exhibited reduced expression in 3-D culture.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Optimization of our 3-D culture methods could improve BM-MSC expansion and thus EV yield.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to characterize extracellular vesicles (EVs) in plasma and synovial fluid obtained from horses with and without naturally occurring post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA).

ANIMALS

EVs were isolated from plasma and synovial fluid from horses with (n = 6) and without (n = 6) PTOA.

METHODS

Plasma and synovial fluid EVs were characterized with respect to quantity, size, and surface markers. Small RNA sequencing was performed, and differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) underwent bioinformatic analysis to identify putative targets and to explore potential associations with specific biological processes.

RESULTS

Plasma and synovial fluid samples from horses with PTOA had a significantly higher proportion of exosomes and a lower proportion of microvesicles compared to horses without PTOA. Small RNA sequencing revealed several differentially expressed miRNAs, including miR-144, miR-219-3p, and miR-199a-3l in plasma and miR-199a-3p, miR-214, and miR-9094 in synovial fluid EVs. Bioinformatics analysis of the differentially expressed miRNAs highlighted their potential role in fibrosis, differentiation of chondrocytes, apoptosis, and inflammation pathways in PTOA.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

We have identified dynamic molecular changes in the small noncoding signatures of plasma and synovial fluid EVs in horses with naturally occurring PTOA. These findings could serve to identify promising biomarkers in the pathogenesis of PTOA, to facilitate the development of targeted therapies, and to aid in establishing appropriate translational models of PTOA.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association