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  • Author or Editor: Kurt L. Zimmerman x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To analyze survival time and identify prognostic factors associated with outcome following discharge in dogs with primary brain tumors treated palliatively.

Design—Prospective case series.

Animals—51 dogs with 5 histopathologic types of brain tumors.

Procedures—Owners with dogs examined from 2004 to 2008 were invited to participate if dogs had CT or MRI evidence of a brain mass that was histopathologically confirmed as a neoplasm upon death, dogs survived for ≥ 48 hours after hospital discharge, and treatments following discharge were limited to administration of prednisone or phenobarbital. Prognostic factors, including signalment, clinical signs (including duration), tumor type, tumor location, degree of peritumoral edema, lesion burden, and prescribed treatment, were evaluated. Survival time was estimated and animal- and tumor-specific variables evaluated as potential prognostic factors.

Results—The median survival time in all dogs was 69 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 18 to 201 days). Multivariate analyses identified neuroanatomic location as the only significant prognostic variable, with the survival time of dogs with infratentorial tumors (n = 18) being significantly shorter (median, 28 days; 95% CI, 19 to 68 days) than survival time of dogs with supratentorial (33) tumors (median, 178 days; 95% CI, 119 to 270 days). Seizures were the most common clinical sign associated with supratentorial tumors (24/33 [73%]) and central vestibular dysfunction with infratentorial tumors (12/18).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with palliatively treated primary brain tumors, particularly those with tumors in the cerebellum, pons, or medulla, had a poor prognosis. However, dogs with supratentorial tumors had survival times > 3 months.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine causes of hyperphosphatasemia (high serum alkaline phosphatase [ALP] activity) in apparently healthy Scottish Terriers.

Design—Prospective case-controlled study.

Animals—34 apparently healthy adult Scottish Terriers (17 with and 17 without hyperphosphatasemia).

Procedures—Serum activities for 3 isoforms (bone, liver, and corticosteroid) of ALP were measured. Concentrations of cortisol, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and aldosterone were measured before and after cosyntropin administration (ie, ACTH; 5 μg/kg [2.27 μg/lb], IM). Liver biopsy specimens from 16 dogs (11 with and 5 without hyperphosphatasemia) were evaluated histologically.

Results—In dogs with hyperphosphatasemia, the corticosteroid ALP isoform comprised a significantly higher percentage of total ALP activity, compared with the percentage in dogs without hyperphosphatasemia (mean ± SE, 69 ± 5.0% and 17 ± 3.8%, respectively). In 6 dogs with hyperphosphatasemia, but none without, serum cortisol concentrations exceeded reference intervals after ACTH stimulation. Six dogs with and 15 without hyperphosphatasemia had increased concentrations of ≥ 1 noncortisol steroid hormone after ACTH stimulation. Serum ALP activity was correlated with cortisol and androstenedione concentrations (r = 0.337 and 0.496, respectively) measured after ACTH stimulation. All dogs with and most without hyperphosphatasemia had abnormal hepatocellular reticulation typical of vacuolar hepatopathy. Subjectively, hepatocellular reticulation was more severe and widespread in hyperphosphatasemic dogs, compared with that in nonhyperphosphatasemic dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hyperphosphatasemia in apparently healthy Scottish Terriers was most likely attributable to hyperadrenocorticism on the basis of exaggerated serum biochemical responses to ACTH administration and histologic hepatic changes, but none of the dogs had clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association