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Abstract

Case Description—A 13-year-old female Timneh African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus timneh) was evaluated because of the presence of a bald patch of skin caudal to the sternum and increased territorial and nesting behavior of 2 weeks' duration.

Clinical Findings—Whole-body radiography revealed a mineralized egg of normal size and shape. However, no oviposition occurred, and the bird had no signs consistent with dystocia. After 7 days, repeated radiography revealed that the egg had rotated by approximately 180° along its short axis, leading to a diagnosis of ectopic egg retention, which was supported by the results of ultrasonography.

Treatment and Outcome—Surgical removal of the ectopic egg was performed by means of a ventral midline approach 14 days after administration of leuprolide acetate (800 μg/kg [364 μg/lb], IM). No intracoelomic abnormalities, such as coelomitis or oviductal disease, were diagnosed, and the bird recovered without complications. Physical examination and whole-body radiography at 8 months and a follow-up phone call with the owner at 16 months after surgical treatment revealed no evidence of ectopic egg recurrence or reproductive behavior.

Clinical Relevance—Clinical management of ectopic egg retention differs considerably from treatment of intraoviductal egg binding. Therefore, careful evaluation of avian patients with radiographic evidence of egg binding should be performed to avoid possible iatrogenic deterioration of the patient's condition, secondary to inappropriate treatment attempts such as hormonal induction of oviposition or attempts to remove the retained egg via the cloaca. Repeated radiography and ultrasonography and close monitoring of the patient's general condition as well as the lack of clinical signs consistent with dystocia will facilitate the diagnosis of ectopic egg retention.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—3 female African spurred tortoises (Geochelone sulcata) of various body weights (0.22, 0.77, and 2.86 kg [0.48, 1.69, and 6.29 lb]) were examined because of reduced food intake and lack of fecal output. Owners reported intermittent tenesmus in 2 of the tortoises.

Clinical Findings—Physical examinations revealed no clinically important abnormalities in the tortoises. Cloacal calculi were diagnosed on the basis of radiography and cloacoscopy in all 3 tortoises. One tortoise had another calculus in the urinary bladder.

Treatment and Outcome—Tortoises were anesthetized, and cloacal calculi were removed by use of a cutting burr (plain-fissure cutting burr and a soft tissue protector mounted to a dental handpiece that had a low-speed motor and a straight nose cone) and warm water irrigation with endoscopic guidance. Complete removal of calculus fragments was achieved by use of forceps and irrigation. In 1 tortoise, removal of the cloacal calculus was staged (2 separate procedures). In another tortoise, a second cloacal calculus (which had been located in the urinary bladder during the first examination) was successfully removed 25 days after removal of the first calculus. All 3 tortoises recovered uneventfully, and serious complications secondary to removal of the cloacal calculi were not detected.

Clinical Relevance—Cloacoscopy combined with the use of a low-speed dental drill and warm water irrigation should be considered a simple, safe, and nontraumatic treatment option for removal of obstructive cloacal calculi in tortoises.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine an optimal ceftazidime dosing strategy in Northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) by evaluation of 2 different doses administered SC and 1 dose administered transcutaneously.

ANIMALS

44 Northern leopard frogs (including 10 that were replaced).

PROCEDURES

Ceftazidime was administered to frogs SC in a forelimb at 20 mg/kg (n = 10; SC20 group) and 40 mg/kg (10; SC40 group) or transcutaneously on the cranial dorsum at 20 mg/kg (10; TC20 group). Two frogs in each ceftazidime group were euthanized 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after drug administration. Plasma, renal, and skin concentrations of ceftazidime were measured by means of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Four control frogs were used for assay validation.

RESULTS

Mean plasma half-life of ceftazidime in the SC20, SC40, and TC20 groups was 9.01 hours, 14.49 hours, and too low to determine, respectively. Mean maximum plasma ceftazidime concentration was 92.9, 96.0, and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively. For 24 hours after drug administration in the SC20 and SC40 groups, plasma ceftazidime concentration exceeded 8 μg/mL. Renal and skin concentrations were detectable at both doses and routes of administration; however, skin concentrations were significantly lower than renal and plasma concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings indicated that ceftazidime administration to Northern leopard frogs at 20 mg/kg, SC, every 24 hours would achieve a plasma concentration exceeding the value considered effective against common amphibian pathogens. Transcutaneous administration of the injectable ceftazidime formulation at 20 mg/kg warrants further investigation but is not currently recommended because of a potential lack of efficacy.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To test the hypothesis that administration of butorphanol or morphine induces antinociception in bearded dragons and corn snakes.

Design—Prospective crossover study.

Animals—12 juvenile and adult bearded dragons and 13 corn snakes.

Procedures—Infrared heat stimuli were applied to the plantar surface of bearded dragon hind limbs or the ventral surface of corn snake tails. Thermal withdrawal latencies (TWDLs) were measured before (baseline) and after SC administration of physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (equivalent volume to opioid volumes), butorphanol tartrate (2 or 20 mg/kg [0.91 or 9.1 mg/lb]), or morphine sulfate (1, 5, 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg [0.45, 2.27, 4.5, 9.1, or 18.2 mg/lb]).

Results—For bearded dragons, butorphanol (2 or 20 mg/kg) did not alter hind limb TWDLs at 2 to 24 hours after administration. However, at 8 hours after administration, morphine (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly increased hind limb TWDLs from baseline values (mean ± SEM maximum increase, 2.7 ± 0.4 seconds and 2.8 ± 0.9 seconds, respectively). For corn snakes, butorphanol (20 mg/kg) significantly increased tail TWDLs at 8 hours after administration (maximum increase from baseline value, 3.0 ± 0.8 seconds); the low dose had no effect. Morphine injections did not increase tail TWDLs at 2 to 24 hours after administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared with doses used in most mammalian species, high doses of morphine (but not butorphanol) induced analgesia in bearded dragons, whereas high doses of butorphanol (but not morphine) induced analgesia in corn snakes.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine antinociceptive efficacy, behavioral patterns, and respiratory effects associated with dexmedetomidine administration in ball pythons (Python regius).

ANIMALS 12 ball pythons.

PROCEDURES Antinociception was assessed by applying an infrared heat stimulus to the cranioventral surface of snakes during 2 experiments. Thermal withdrawal latency was measured at 0, 2, and 24 hours after SC injections of dexmedetomidine (0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution and at 0 to 60 minutes after injection of dexmedetomidine (0.1 mg/kg) or saline solution. Behaviors were recorded at 0, 2, and 24 hours after administration of dexmedetomidine (0.1 mg/kg) or saline solution. Tongue flicking, head flinch to the approach of an observer's hand, movement, and righting reflex were scored. Respiratory frequency was measured by use of plethysmography to detect breathing-related movements after injection of dexmedetomidine (0.1 mg/kg) or saline solution.

RESULTS Mean baseline withdrawal latency was 5 to 7 seconds; saline solution did not alter withdrawal latency. Dexmedetomidine increased withdrawal latency by 18 seconds (0.2 mg/kg) and 13 seconds (0.1 mg/kg) above baseline values at 2 hours. Increased withdrawal latency was detected within 15 minutes after dexmedetomidine administration. At 2 hours after injection, there were few differences in behavioral scores. Dexmedetomidine injection depressed respiratory frequency by 55% to 70%, compared with results for saline solution, but snakes continued to breathe without prolonged apnea.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dexmedetomidine increased noxious thermal withdrawal latency without causing excessive sedation. Therefore, dexmedetomidine may be a useful analgesic drug in ball pythons and other snake species.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptor (MOR, DOR, and KOR, respectively) activation on thermal antinociception in red-eared slider turtles Trachemys scripta.

Animals—51 adult turtles.

Procedures—Infrared heat stimuli were applied to the plantar surface of turtle hind limbs. Thermal hind limb withdrawal latencies (HLWLs) were measured before (baseline) and at intervals after SC administration of various doses of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (SS), MOR, DOR, or KOR agonists (3 to 13 turtles/treatment). Treatment with a DOR antagonist SC prior to DOR agonist administration was also evaluated.

Results—Treatment with an MOR agonist ([D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin acetate salt [DAMGO; 1.3 or 6.6 mg/kg]) increased HLWLs (from baseline) at 2 to 8 hours after injection; at the higher dose, the maximum mean increase was 5.6 seconds at 4 hours. Treatment with a DOR agonist ([D-Ala2, D-Leu5]-enkephalin acetate salt [DADLE; 25 mg/kg]) increased mean HLWL by 11.3 seconds at 4 hours; however, treatment with DADLE (5.8 mg/kg) or with another DOR agonist ([D-Pen2,5]-enkephalin hydrate [DPDPE; 1.2 or 6.3 mg/kg]) did not alter HLWL, compared with SS effects. Administration of a DOR antagonist (naltrindole hydrochloride; 10 mg/kg) prior to DADLE administration (25 mg/kg) increased mean HLWL by 2.7 seconds at 4 hours. One KOR agonist, U50488 ([−]-trans-[1S,2S]-U50488 hydrochloride hydrate; 6.7 mg/kg) decreased HLWL steadily from 2 to 24 hours (less than baseline value); another KOR agonist, U69593 ([+]-[5α,7α,8β]-N-Methyl-N-[7-{1-pyrrolidinyl}-1-oxaspiro{4.5}dec-8-yl]-benzene-acet-amide; 6.7 or 26 mg/kg) did not alter HLWLs, compared with SS effects.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Opioid-dependent thermal antinociception in turtles appeared to be attributable mainly to MOR activation with a relatively minor contribution of DOR activation.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the dose- and time-dependent changes in analgesia and respiration caused by tramadol administration in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta).

Design—Crossover study.

Animals—30 adult male and female red-eared slider turtles.

Procedures—11 turtles received tramadol at various doses (1, 5, 10, or 25 mg/kg [0.45, 2.27, 4.54, or 11.36 mg/lb], PO; 10 or 25 mg/kg, SC) or a control treatment administered similarly. Degree of analgesia was assessed through measurement of hind limb thermal withdrawal latencies (TWDLs) at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after tramadol administration. Nineteen other freely swimming turtles received tramadol PO (5, 10, or 25 mg/kg), and ventilation (VE), breath frequency, tidal volume (VT), and expiratory breath duration were measured.

Results—The highest tramadol doses (10 and 25 mg/kg, PO) yielded greater mean TWDLs 6 to 96 hours after administration than the control treatment did, whereas tramadol administered at 5 mg/kg, PO, yielded greater mean TWDLs at 12 and 24 hours. The lowest tramadol dose (1 mg/kg, PO) failed to result in analgesia. Tramadol administered SC resulted in lower TWDLs, slower onset, and shorter duration of action, compared with PO administration. Tramadol at 10 and 25 mg/kg, PO, reduced the VE at 12 hours by 51% and 67%, respectively, and at 24 through 72 hours by 55% to 62% and 61 % to 70%, respectively. However, tramadol at 5 mg/kg, PO, had no effect on the VE.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tramadol administered PO at 5 to 10 mg/kg provided thermal analgesia with less respiratory depression than that reported for morphine in red-eared slider turtles.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effects of dexmedetomidine, doxapram, and dexmedetomidine plus doxapram on ventilation ( e), breath frequency, and tidal volume (Vt) in ball pythons (Python regius) and of doxapram on the thermal antinociceptive efficacy of dexmedetomidine.

ANIMALS

14 ball pythons.

PROCEDURES

Respiratory effects of dexmedetomidine and doxapram were assessed with whole-body, closed-chamber plethysmography, which allowed for estimates of e and Vt. In the first experiment of this study with a complete crossover design, snakes were injected, SC, with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, dexmedetomidine (0.1 mg/kg), doxapram (10 mg/kg), or dexmedetomidine and doxapram, and breath frequency, e, and Vt were measured before and every 30 minutes thereafter, through 240 minutes. In the second experiment, antinociceptive efficacy of saline solution, dexmedetomidine, and dexmedetomidine plus doxapram was assessed by measuring thermal withdrawal latencies before and 60 minutes after SC injection.

RESULTS

Dexmedetomidine significantly decreased breath frequency and increased Vt but did not affect e at all time points, compared with baseline. Doxapram significantly increased e, breath frequency, and Vt at 60 minutes after injection, compared with saline solution. The combination of dexmedetomidine and doxapram, compared with dexmedetomidine alone, significantly increased e at 30 and 60 minutes after injection and did not affect breath frequency and Vt at all time points. Thermal withdrawal latencies significantly increased when snakes received dexmedetomidine or dexmedetomidine plus doxapram, versus saline solution.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Concurrent administration of doxapram may mitigate the dexmedetomidine-induced reduction of breathing frequency without disrupting thermal antinociceptive efficacy in ball pythons.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare pharmacokinetics after a single IM or SC injection of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) to bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

Animals—8 adult male bearded dragons.

Procedures—In a preliminary experiment, doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg, SC, were compared in 2 animals, and 30 mg/kg resulted in a more desirable pharmacokinetic profile. Then, in a randomized, complete crossover experimental design, each bearded dragon (n = 6) received a single dose of 30 mg of CCFA/kg IM or SC; the experiment was repeated after a 28-day washout period with the other route of administration. Blood samples were collected at 10 time points for 288 hours after injection. Plasma concentrations of ceftiofur and desfuroylceftiofur metabolites were measured via reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed with a noncompartmental model.

Results—No adverse effects were observed. Plasma concentrations greater than a target minimum inhibitory concentration of 1 μg/mL were achieved by 4 hours after administration by both routes. Mean plasma concentrations remained > 1 μg/mL for > 288 hours for both routes of administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A single dose of CCFA (30 mg/kg) administered IM or SC to bearded dragons yielded plasma concentrations of ceftiofur and its metabolites > 1 μg/mL for > 288 hours. The SC route would be preferred because of less variability in plasma concentrations and greater ease of administration than the IM route. Future studies should include efficacy data as well as evaluation of the administration of multiple doses.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the sedative effects of a combination of dexmedetomidine and ketamine differed when it was administered IM in a hind limb versus a forelimb of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

DESIGN Randomized crossover study.

ANIMALS 9 healthy adult leopard geckos.

PROCEDURES Each gecko received a combination of dexmedetomidine (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb]) and ketamine (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb]; DK), IM, in a forelimb and hind limb in a randomized order and with a 7-day interval between treatments. All geckos received atipamezole (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], SC) 45 minutes after DK administration. Palpebral and righting reflexes, jaw tone, and superficial pain and escape responses were each assessed on a 3-point scale, and the scores for those variables were summed to calculate a sedation score. Those variables and heart and respiratory rates were evaluated at predetermined times before and for 1 hour after DK administration.

RESULTS For the forelimb treatment, mean sedation score was higher and mean heart rate was lower than the corresponding values for the hind limb treatment at most time points after DK administration. The righting reflex remained intact for all 9 geckos following the hind limb treatment but became absent in 7 geckos following the forelimb treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the extent of DK-induced sedation was greater when the combination was injected IM in a forelimb versus a hind limb of leopard geckos, likely owing to a hepatic first-pass effect following hind limb injection. In reptiles, IM hind limb administration of drugs that undergo hepatic metabolism and excretion is not recommended.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association