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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of meloxicam on severity of lameness and other clinical signs in dogs with osteoarthritis (OA).

Design—Randomized, controlled, multicenter clinical trial.

Animals—217 client-owned dogs with clinical and radiographic signs of OA.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to be treated with meloxicam (n = 105; 0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb], SC, once on day 1, then 0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h, for 13 days) or a placebo (n = 112). A general clinical score was assigned by investigators on days 1 (ie, prior to initiation of treatment), 8, and 15 on the basis of severity of lameness, extent of weight bearing, and severity of signs during palpation of the affected joint. Owners and investigators provided overall evaluations on days 8 and 15.

Results—Dogs treated with meloxicam had significantly greater improvements in general clinical scores, compared with baseline scores, on days 8 and 15 than did dogs treated with placebo. On days 8 and 15, percentages of dogs treated with meloxicam in which owners and investigators considered treatment to be successful were significantly higher than percentages of control dogs in which treatment was considered to be successful. No abnormalities in hematologic and serum biochemical test results were detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that compared with administration of a placebo, administration of meloxicam for 14 days significantly improved the clinical condition of dogs with OA without causing adverse effects. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1056–1060)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

During the breeding season, the effect of constant administration of an agonist analog of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; goserelin acetate) on reproductive activity of mares was determined. Twenty-four mares undergoing estrous cycles were allocated at random to 6 groups (n = 4/group) and, on May 29 (day 0), received no treatment (group 1, controls), 120 µg (group 2), 360 µg (group 3), 600 µg (group 4), or 1,200 µg (group 5) of GnRH agonist/d for 28 days via a depot implanted subcutaneously. The final group of mares (group 6) was treated with 120 µg of GnRH agonist/d for 84 days (3 occasions at 28-day intervals). During a pretreatment period (April 19 to May 29) and for 90 days after initiation of GnRH agonist treatment, follicular development and ovulation were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography of the reproductive tract at 2- to 3-day intervals. On each occasion a blood sample was collected for determination of luteinizing hormone (lh) and progesterone. Estrous behavior was monitored by teasing of mares with a stallion. Initiation of agonist treatment was random, relative to the stage of the estrous cycle, and all mares ovulated within 11 days before or after implantation.

In 3 of 4 nontreated control mares, estrous cycles were observed throughout the study, with interovulatory intervals ranging from 18 to 26 days. In the remaining mare, concentration of progesterone was high after asynchronous double ovulation during the pretreatment period, suggestive of persistent corpus luteum. In group-2 mares, ovulation occurred in all mares 7 days before and 2 days after initiation of treatment; however, the next anticipated ovulation was delayed in 3 of 4 mares (interovulatory interval, 33 to 70 days). Estrous cycles were not disrupted in the remaining mare. At higher doses (groups 3-5), 1 mare each from groups 3 and 5 ovulated between days 0 and 2 of treatment initiation, but failed to ovulate during the remainder of the study (anovulatory for > 88 days). Similarly, an additional 2 mares of groups 2 and 3 ovulated within 2 days of GnRH agonist treatment. A second ovulation occurred in these mares 32 to 35 days later; thereafter, both mares were anovulatory for the remainder of the study. In the remaining 8 mares, interovulatory intervals were either lengthened (n = 6 mares, range, 32 to 82 days) or were unaffected (n = 2) by treatment. One group-6 mare had a lengthened interovulatory interval, 1 was anovulatory for > 90 days, and the remaining 2 mares were unaffected by treatment.

During the 28-day treatment period, serum concentration of lh decreased (P < 0.05) only in mares of groups 3–5. In group-6 mares, concentration of lh was unchanged during each 28-day period after depot GnRH agonist administration. Thus, constant administration of a GnRH agonist to mares during the breeding season disrupted their estrous cycles. Anovulation or lengthening of the interovulatory interval by GnRH agonist treatment was associated with persistence of a corpus luteum or an extended follicular phase.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of preemptive administration of meloxicam or butorphanol in cats undergoing onychectomy or onychectomy and neutering.

Design—Randomized controlled study.

Animals—64 female and 74 male cats that were 4 to 192 months old and weighed 1.09 to 7.05 kg (2.4 to 15.5 lb).

Procedure—Cats received meloxicam (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb], SC) or butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg [0.18 mg/lb], SC) 15 minutes after premedication and prior to anesthesia. A single blinded observer measured physiologic variables, assigned analgesia and lameness scores, and withdrew blood samples for each cat at baseline and throughout the 24 hours after surgery. Rescue analgesia (butorphanol, 0.4 mg/kg, IV or SC) or administration of acepromazine (0.025 to 0.05 mg/kg [0.011 to 0.023 mg/lb], IV) was allowed.

Results—Meloxicam-treated cats were less lame and had lower pain scores. Cortisol concentration was higher at extubation and lower at 1, 5, and 12 hours in the meloxicam-treated cats. Fewer meloxicam-treated cats required rescue analgesia at 3, 5, 12, and 24 hours after extubation. General impression scores were excellent or good in 75% of meloxicam-treated cats and 44% of butorphanol-treated cats. There was no treatment effect on buccal bleeding time; PCV and BUN concentration decreased in both groups, and glucose concentration decreased in meloxicam-treated cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Preoperative administration of meloxicam improved analgesia for 24 hours without clinically relevant adverse effects in cats that underwent onychectomy or onychectomy and neutering and provided safe, extended analgesia, compared with butorphanol. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:913–919)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association