Case Descriptions—A 4-year-old spayed female Golden Retriever (dog 1) was examined because of acute edema and erythema in the left hind limb and an inguinal mass, and a 5-year-old female Jack Russell Terrier (dog 2) was examined because of a recurring retro-peritoneal mass.
Clinical Findings—Dog 1 had an edematous, hyperemic left hind limb with a fixed inguinal mass. Monocytic neutrophilic leukocytosis and hypoalbuminemia were detected. Diagnostic imaging revealed abnormal tissue surrounding the larger vessels and ureters and complete occlusion of the left limb veins. Surgery resulted in incomplete removal of the mass. Histologic examination revealed fibrosing pyogranulomatous inflammation. Results of a Histoplasma antigen test were positive, and reanalysis of the tissues revealed yeast cells indicative of Histoplasma capsulatum. Dog 2 had incomplete removal of a retroperitoneal mass. Histologic examination revealed fibrosing pyogranulomatous inflammation. The mass recurred 8 months later in dog 2; exploratory abdominal surgery at that time resulted in substantial hemorrhage from the adhered caudal aorta. Histologic examination of tissue sections from the second surgery revealed yeast cells consistent with Blastomyces dermatitidis.
Treatment and Outcome—Both dogs had temporary improvement after surgery. Full clinical resolution required treatment for fungal disease. Dog 1 was treated with itraconazole, then fluconazole (total treatment time, 23 weeks). Dog 2 was treated with fluconazole for 36 weeks.
Clinical Relevance—Retroperitoneal pyogranulomatous fibrosis caused by fungal infections has not been reported in veterinary medicine. There was substantial morbidity, but the prognosis can be good when this abnormality is recognized and antifungal medications are administered.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the lipidemia status and serum concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides of dogs when initially examined for hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a veterinary teaching hospital and to determine whether these variables were predictive of survival to hospital discharge.
PROCEDURES Medical records of sick dogs hospitalized in the ICU at a veterinary teaching hospital between January 1, 2012, and September 30, 2015, and of healthy dogs evaluated at the teaching hospital during the same time frame were reviewed. Data collection included signalment, results of initial physical and clinicopathologic examinations, treatments, diagnosis, and survival to hospital discharge. Lipidemia status and serum concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides were compared between healthy and sick dogs and between sick dogs that did and did not survive to hospital discharge. Regression analysis was performed to determine whether these variables were predictive of survival to hospital discharge in dogs.
RESULTS Factors associated with increased odds of sick dogs not surviving to hospital discharge were hypocholesterolemia (OR, 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 3.34), hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 3.20; 95% CI, 2.00 to 5.13), and concurrent hypocholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 55.7; 95% CI, 3.2 to 959.6) at the time of initial evaluation.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that hypocholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, alone or in combination, at initial examination were negative prognostic indicators for survival of dogs hospitalized in the ICU and that these conditions were easily identified with routine serum clinicopathologic analyses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2019;254:699–709)
To characterize clinical, clinicopathologic, and hepatic histopathologic features and outcome for dogs with probable ketoconazole-induced liver injury.
15 dogs with suspected ketoconazole-induced liver injury that underwent liver biopsy.
Medical record data were summarized regarding signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathologic and hepatic histopathologic findings, concurrent medications, ketoconazole dose, treatment duration, and outcome.
Median age and body weight were 8.2 years (range, 5 to 15 years) and 13.0 kg (28.6 lb; range, 8.2 to 38.0 kg [18.0 to 83.6 lb]), respectively. The most common breed was Cocker Spaniel (n = 5). All dogs received ketoconazole to treat cutaneous Malassezia infections. Median daily ketoconazole dose was 7.8 mg/kg (3.5 mg/lb; range, 4.4 to 26.0 mg/kg [2.0 to 11.8 mg/lb]), PO. Treatment duration ranged from 0.3 to 100 cumulative weeks (intermittent cyclic administration in some dogs); 6 dogs were treated for ≤ 10 days. Common clinical signs included lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. All dogs developed high serum liver enzyme activities. Hepatic histopathologic findings included variable lobular injury, mixed inflammatory infiltrates, and conspicuous aggregates of ceroid-lipofuscin–engorged macrophages that marked regions of parenchymal damage. Five dogs developed chronic hepatitis, including 3 with pyogranulomatous inflammation. Of the 10 dogs reported to have died at last follow-up, survival time after illness onset ranged from 0.5 to 165 weeks, with 7 dogs dying of liver-related causes.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Findings for dogs with hepatotoxicosis circumstantially associated with ketoconazole treatment suggested proactive monitoring of serum liver enzyme activities is advisable before and sequentially after initiation of such treatment.