Objective—To compare treatment with enrofloxacin
and doxycycline with no treatment in cats experimentally
infected with Haemobartonella felis.
Design—Prospective case-control study.
Procedure—Cats were inoculated with large-form
H felis from a chronically infected donor. Cats were
assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: doxycycline
(5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h), low-dose
enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), high-dose
enrofloxacin (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h), and
an untreated control group. Clinical signs, Hct,
blood smears, and a polymerase chain reaction
(PCR) assay were used to monitor progression of
Results—All cats were confirmed to be infected with
H felis via blood smear evaluations and PCR assay
results. Treatment had no effect on Hct during the
intratreatment period, but Hct values were significantly
greater in the low-dose enrofloxacin group,
compared with the control group, during the posttreatment
period. During the intratreatment period, H
felis organism counts per 1,000 RBC in the doxycycline
treatment and the high-dose enrofloxacin treatment
groups decreased at a significantly faster rate
than those in the control group. In the posttreatment
period, organism counts in the doxycycline treatment
group and the low- and high-dose enrofloxacin groups
decreased at significantly faster rates than counts in
the control group. There was no significant effect of
treatment on the number of positive PCR assay
results. Two cats treated with enrofloxacin and 1 cat
treated with doxycycline completely cleared the
H felis organism despite presumed immunosuppression
caused by glucocorticoids.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results support
the hypothesis that enrofloxacin has anti-H felis
effects. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:250–253)
Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of the fluoroquinolone pradofloxacin in the treatment of cats experimentally infected with Mycoplasma hemofelis.
Animals—23 young adult specific-pathogen–free cats.
Procedures—Cats were inoculated with M hemofelis from a chronically infected donor and assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: a doxycycline group, a low-dose–pradofloxacin group, a high-dose–pradofloxacin group, and an untreated control group. Treatment was initiated for 14 days when M hemofelis infection was detected via PCR assay and clinical signs of hemoplasmosis were present. Cats that had negative PCR assay results after treatment were administered a glucocorticoid and monitored via PCR assay for an additional 4 weeks.
Results—All cats yielded positive results for M hemofelis via conventional PCR and quantitative PCR assays and developed anemia. The low-dose–pradofloxacin group had significantly lower M hemofelis copy numbers than the doxycycline group. Six cats treated with pradofloxacin yielded negative results during treatment. Of those cats, 4 yielded negative conventional PCR assay results and all yielded negative quantitative PCR assay results for M hemofelis 1 month after administration of high-dose glucocorticoids.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pradofloxacin had anti–M hemofelis effects similar to those of doxycycline. In addition, pradofloxacin may be more effective at long-term M hemofelis organism clearance than doxycycline.
Objective—To evaluate effects of injection with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) followed by oral administration of an NSAID on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of healthy dogs.
Animals—6 healthy Walker Hounds.
Procedures—In a randomized, crossover design, dogs were administered 4 treatments consisting of an SC injection of an NSAID or control solution (day 0), followed by oral administration of an NSAID or inert substance for 4 days (days 1 through 4). Treatment regimens included carprofen (4 mg/kg) followed by inert substance; saline (0.9% NaCl) solution followed by deracoxib (4 mg/kg); carprofen (4 mg/kg) followed by carprofen (4 mg/kg); and carprofen (4 mg/kg) followed by deracoxib (4 mg/kg). Hematologic, serum biochemical, and fecal evaluations were conducted weekly, and clinical scores were obtained daily. Endoscopy of the GIT was performed before and on days 1, 2, and 5 for each treatment. Lesions were scored by use of a 6-point scale.
Results—No significant differences existed for clinical data, clinicopathologic data, or lesion scores in the esophagus, cardia, or duodenum. For the gastric fundus, antrum, and lesser curvature, an effect of time was observed for all treatments, with lesions worsening from before to day 2 of treatments but improving by day 5.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sequential administration of NSAIDs in this experiment did not result in clinically important gastroduodenal ulcers. A larger study to investigate the effect of sequential administration of NSAIDs for longer durations and in dogs with signs of acute and chronic pain is essential to substantiate these findings.
Objective—To determine fluid retention, glomerular filtration rate, and urine output in dogs anesthetized for a surgical orthopedic procedure.
Animals—23 dogs treated with a tibial plateau leveling osteotomy.
Procedures—12 dogs were used as a control group. Cardiac output was measured in 5 dogs, and 6 dogs received carprofen for at least 14 days. Dogs received oxymorphone, atropine, propofol, and isoflurane for anesthesia (duration, 4 hours). Urine and blood samples were obtained for analysis every 30 minutes. Lactated Ringer's solution was administered at 10 mL/kg/h. Urine output was measured and glomerular filtration rate was estimated. Fluid retention was measured by use of body weight, fluid balance, and bioimpedance spectroscopy.
Results—No difference was found among control, cardiac output, or carprofen groups, so data were combined. Median urine output and glomerular filtration rate were 0.46 mL/kg/h and 1.84 mL/kg/min. Dogs retained a large amount of fluids during anesthesia, as indicated by increased body weight, positive fluid balance, increased total body water volume, and increased extracellular fluid volume. The PCV, total protein concentration, and esophageal temperature decreased in a linear manner.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs anesthetized for a tibial plateau leveling osteotomy retained a large amount of fluids, had low urinary output, and had decreased PCV, total protein concentration, and esophageal temperature. Evaluation of urine output alone in anesthetized dogs may not be an adequate indicator of fluid balance.
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of hospitalization on gastrointestinal motility and pH in healthy dogs.
DESIGN Experimental study.
ANIMALS 12 healthy adult dogs.
PROCEDURES A wireless motility capsule (WMC) that measured pressure, transit time, and pH within the gastrointestinal tract was administered orally to dogs in 2 phases. In the first phase, dogs received the WMC at the hospital and then returned to their home to follow their daily routine. In the second phase, dogs were hospitalized, housed individually, had abdominal radiography performed daily, and were leash exercised 4 to 6 times/d until the WMC passed in the feces. All dogs received the same diet twice per day in both phases. Data were compared between phases with the Wilcoxon signed rank test.
RESULTS Data were collected from 11 dogs; 1 dog was excluded because the WMC failed to exit the stomach. Median gastric emptying time during hospitalization (71.8 hours; range, 10.7 to 163.0 hours) was significantly longer than at home (17.6 hours; range, 9.7 to 80.8 hours). Values of all other gastric, small bowel, and large bowel parameters (motility index, motility pattern, pH, and transit time) were similar between phases. No change in gastric pH was detected over the hospitalization period. High interdog variability was evident for all measured parameters.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Hospitalization of dogs may result in a prolonged gastric emptying time, which could adversely affect gastric emptying of meals, transit of orally administered drugs, or assessments of underlying motility disorders.
A 1.5-year-old 1.5-kg (3.3-lb) castrated male Pomeranian was examined because of a 10-month history of diarrhea characterized by hematochezia and weight loss and an acute onset of respiratory distress (ie, tachypnea and dyspnea). A presumptive diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease had been made previously, and the dog had been treated with budesonide and tylosin but continued to have diarrhea and weight loss.
On initial examination, the dog was weak and slightly obtunded. Thoracic radiography revealed a moderate to severe, diffuse, unstructured interstitial pattern. Serum biochemical abnormalities consisted of mild hypoalbuminemia, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypocholesterolemia that were likely secondary to chronic gastrointestinal disease and malnutrition. Pyuria and moderate bacteriuria with a single live larva were found on microscopic evaluation of the urine sediment. Fecal examination revealed numerous nematode larvae; the morphology was consistent with first-stage, rhabditiform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
A diagnosis of disseminated S stercoralis infection was made. The dog was treated with fenbendazole and ivermectin but developed respiratory collapse approximately 12 hours later and was euthanized because of the poor prognosis. Postmortem examination revealed S stercoralis in the lungs, small intestine, and kidney.
Findings illustrated the importance of performing diagnostic testing, including routine fecal examination, to rule out infectious causes of diarrhea before beginning empirical treatment with glucocorticoids such as budesonide. Further, repeated fecal examinations, including Baermann tests, should be considered if a positive response to glucocorticoids is not observed.