Objective—To evaluate the effect of several sedation protocols on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in cats as measured by use of quantitative renal scintigraphy and to analyze interobserver differences in GFR calculation.
Procedures—Effects on GFR of 3 sedation protocols commonly used at the Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine were evaluated. The protocols were medetomidine (11 μg/kg) and butorphanol tartrate (0.22 mg/kg) administered IM; ketamine hydrochloride (10 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) administered IV; and ketamine (10 mg/kg), midazolam (0.5 mg/kg), and acepromazine maleate (0.05 mg/kg) administered IM. Results for the 3 protocols were compared with results of GFR measurements obtained in these same cats without sedation (control protocol).
Results—No significant difference between GFR measurements was associated with the 3 sedation protocols, compared with GFR measurements for the control protocol. The greatest mean GFR values were for the medetomidine-butorphanol and ketamine-midazolam protocols. There were no significant differences between observers for calculation of GFR.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that none of the 3 sedation protocols had significant effects on GFR calculated by use of quantitative renal scintigraphy, compared with results for GFR evaluations performed in the cats when they were not sedated. No significant interobserver error was evident. However, the statistical power of this study was low, and the probability of a type II error was high.
To characterize lung ultrasonography (LUS) findings in dogs with a primary clinical complaint of cough.
100 client-owned coughing dogs.
A standardized LUS examination was performed for all dogs to quantify the number of B lines and identify subpleural abnormalities at 4 sites on each hemithorax. The final clinical diagnosis (reference standard) was determined by medical record review, and sensitivity and specificity of LUS for the diagnosis of selected causes of cough was determined.
Common underlying causes of cough included dynamic airway collapse (n = 37), cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE; 12), and bronchitis (10). Compared with dogs with other causes of cough, dogs with bacterial pneumonia (n = 7) were more likely to have subpleural shred signs, whereas dogs with pulmonary neoplasia (4) were more likely to have subpleural nodule signs. Dogs with CPE had higher total B-line scores and higher numbers of LUS sites strongly positive for B lines (> 3 B lines/site) than other dogs. The LUS criteria of total B-line score ≥ 10 and presence of ≥ 2 sites strongly positive for B lines were each 92% sensitive and 94% specific for CPE diagnosis. Notably, 18% (16/88) of dogs with noncardiac causes of cough had been treated previously with diuretics because of prior CPE misdiagnosis.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
LUS profiles in dogs with cough differed by the underlying cause. In dogs with a clinical history of cough, this imaging modality could be diagnostically useful, particularly to help exclude the possibility of underlying CPE.