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  • Author or Editor: Kristen M. Merrill x
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A 6-month-old 20.2-kg (44.4-lb) sexually intact female Labrador Retriever was evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital because of a 10-day history of anorexia, vomiting, and lethargy and a 4-day history of ascites. Eleven days prior to the evaluation at the hospital, the dog had been examined by the referring veterinarian because of acute vomiting. Abdominal radiography revealed no abnormalities. The dog was sent home, and the owner was instructed to provide supportive care for suspected gastroenteritis. The dog was reexamined 5 days later because of a lack of improvement. At that time (day 6), results of a CBC were

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine the in vitro effects of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dobutamine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in blood from healthy dogs.


Blood samples from 9 healthy dogs.


Blood samples were incubated with LPS from Escherichia coli O127:B8 or PBSS (control) for 1 hour. Afterward, the samples were incubated with 10μM epinephrine, norepinephrine, or dobutamine or with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control) for 23 hours. Leukocyte viability was assessed by use of trypan-blue exclusion in blood from 2 dogs to ensure cell viability was not altered by the catecholamines. Tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and IL-10 concentrations were measured in the supernatant in duplicate with a canine-specific multiplex bead-based assay. Blood samples from 2 dogs were used to create dose-response curves to evaluate whether the observed cytokine modulation was dependent on catecholamine concentration.


Incubation of blood with epinephrine and norepinephrine significantly increased LPS-stimulated production of IL-10, compared with the control. Epinephrine and norepinephrine significantly decreased LPS-stimulated production of TNF-α, compared with the control. Epinephrine and norepinephrine did not significantly alter LPS-stimulated production of IL-6. Dobutamine did not alter catecholamine production.


Epinephrine and norepinephrine, but not dobutamine, had immunomodulatory effects on LPS-stimulated TNF-α and IL-10 production in blood from healthy dogs in this in vitro model of sepsis. Data suggested that dobutamine may have immune system-sparing effects in dogs with sepsis.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research