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  • Author or Editor: Kristen A. Phair x
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Objective—To determine the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane in thick-billed parrots (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha) and compare MAC obtained via mechanical and electrical stimulation.

Animals—15 healthy thick-billed parrots.

Procedures—Anesthesia was induced in each parrot by administration of sevoflurane in oxygen. An end-tidal sevoflurane concentration of 2.5% was established in the first bird. Fifteen minutes was allowed for equilibration. Then, 2 types of noxious stimulation (mechanical and electrical) were applied; stimuli were separated by 15 minutes. Responses to stimuli were graded as positive or negative. For a positive or negative response to a stimulus, the target end-tidal sevoflurane concentration of the subsequent bird was increased or decreased by 10%, respectively. The MAC was calculated as the mean end-tidal sevoflurane concentration during crossover events, defined as instances in which independent pairs of birds evaluated in succession had opposite responses. A quantal method was used to determine sevoflurane MAC. Physiologic variables and arterial blood gas values were also measured.

Results—Via quantal analysis, mean sevoflurane MAC in thick-billed parrots determined with mechanical stimulation was 2.35% (90% fiducial interval, 1.32% to 2.66%), which differed significantly from the mean sevoflurane MAC determined with electrical stimulation, which was 4.24% (90% fiducial interval, 3.61% to 8.71%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sevoflurane MAC in thick-billed parrots determined by mechanical stimulation was similar to values determined in chickens and mammals. Sevoflurane MAC determined by electrical stimulation was significantly higher, which suggested that the 2 types of stimulation did not induce similar results in thick-billed parrots.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To determine the pharmacokinetics of a single bolus of intravenous (IV) propofol after intramuscular administration of etorphine, butorphanol, medetomidine, and azaperone in 5 southern white rhinoceros to facilitate reproductive evaluations. A specific consideration was whether propofol would facilitate timely orotracheal intubation.


5 adult, female, zoo-maintained southern white rhinoceros.


Rhinoceros were administered etorphine (0.002 mg/kg), butorphanol (0.02 to 0.026 mg/kg), medetomidine (0.023 to 0.025 mg/kg), and azaperone (0.014 to 0.017 mg/kg) intramuscularly (IM) prior to an IV dose of propofol (0.5 mg/kg). Physiologic parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and capnography), timed parameters (eg, time to initial effects and intubation), and quality of induction and intubation were recorded following drug administration. Venous blood was collected for analysis of plasma propofol concentrations using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at various time points after propofol administration.


All animals were approachable following IM drug administration, and orotracheal intubation was achieved at 9.8 ± 2.0 minutes (mean ±SD) following propofol administration. The mean clearance for propofol was 14.2 ± 7.7 ml/min/kg, the mean terminal half-life was 82.4 ± 74.4 minutes, and the maximum concentration occurred at 2.8 ± 2.9 minutes. Two of 5 rhinoceros experienced apnea after propofol administration. Initial hypertension, which improved without intervention, was observed.


This study provides pharmacokinetic data and insight into the effects of propofol in rhinoceros anesthetized using etorphine, butorphanol, medetomidine, and azaperone. While apnea was observed in 2 rhinoceros, propofol administration allowed for rapid control of the airway and facilitated oxygen administration and ventilatory support.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research