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Summary

Nine dogs with intermediate- or high-grade lymphoma were prospectively entered into a protocol to be given a total of 15 weekly doses of doxorubicin (10 mg/m2 of body surface, iv) in an attempt to eliminate all clinical evidence of neoplasia, with minimal risk of drug toxicity. Eight of these dogs did not complete the protocol because of progression of the disease. The median number of doses administered to dogs that developed progressive disease before the regimen was completed was 5 (range, 2 to 9). Seven dogs achieved partial (n = 5) or complete (n = 2) remission, with median duration of 14 days (range, 7 to 231 days). The dog that was given all 15 weekly treatments remained in complete remission for 231 days. Complete remission that lasted for 14 days was observed in another dog. Toxicosis developed in 3 dogs; signs of toxicosis were generally mild and included colitis (n = 1), vomiting (n = 1), neutropenia (n = 1), and lethargy (n = 1). The lowest neutrophil count (1,876 cells/μl) was seen in one dog after 7 doses of doxorubicin were given. Doxorubicin at dosage of 10 mg/m2/wk appears to be safe, but is generally ineffective for treatment of lymphoma.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Of 82 dogs with thyroid carcinoma seen between January 1981 and October 1989, 20 had freely movable tumors without evidence of metastasis and were treated with surgical excision alone. Uncensored mean and median survival times for these 20 dogs were both 20.5 months. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, which censors for nontumor-related deaths and dogs lost to follow-up, indicated that median survival time was greater than 36 months. Seven dogs died of tumor-related causes: 2 died because of metastasis or local recurrence of the tumor, 5 died of treatment-related complications (eg, laryngeal paralysis, hypocalcemia, tracheostomy complications). Eight dogs died of unrelated causes; 1 dog was lost to follow-up at 26 months after surgery; 3 dogs were alive 19, 24, and 26 months after surgery. Cause of death could not be determined in the remaining dog. Long-term survival is possible following surgical removal of mobile thyroid carcinomas in dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

One hundred twenty-six dogs with histologically confirmed, measurable malignant tumors were evaluated in a prospective study to determine the response to the antineoplastic drug mitoxantrone. Ninety-five dogs had been refractory to one or more treatment modalities (surgery, n = 57; chemotherapy other than mitoxantrone, n = 37; radiation, n = 4; whole body hyperthermia, n = 1). The extent of neoplastic disease was determined immediately before each dose of mitoxantrone was administered (1 to 10 doses, 2.5 to 5 mg/m2 of body surface area, iv) 21 days apart. Each dog was treated with mitoxantrone until the dog developed progressive disease or until the dog's quality of life diminished to an unacceptable level as determined by the owner or attending veterinarian.

A partial or complete remission (>50% volume reduction) was obtained in 23% (29/126) of all dogs treated. Tumors in which there was a partial or complete remission included lymphoma (11/32), squamous cell carcinoma (4/9), fibrosarcoma (2/9), thyroid carcinoma (1/10), transitional cell carcinoma (1/6), mammary adenocarcinoma (1/6), hepatocellular carcinoma (1/4), renal adenocarcinoma (1/1), rectal carcinoma (1/1), chondrosarcoma (1/2), oral malignant melanoma (1/12), cutaneous malignant melanoma (1/1), myxosarcoma (1/1), mesothelioma (1/1), and hemangiopericytoma (1/1).

Our results indicated that mitoxantrone induces measurable regression in various malignant tumors in dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

One hundred twenty-nine dogs with histologically confirmed malignant tumors were used in a prospective study to determine the toxicity of the new dihydroxyquinone derivative of anthracene, mitoxantrone, which was administered iv at 21-day intervals at dosages ranging from 2.5 to 5 mg/m2 body surface area. Each dog was evaluated for signs of toxicosis for 3 weeks after each dose was administered or until the dog died, whichever came first. The number of dogs in each evaluation period were as follows: 1 dose (n = 129), 2 doses (n = 82), 3 doses (n = 43), 4 doses (n = 26), 5 doses (n = 19), 6 doses (n = 9), 7 doses (n = 6), 8 doses (n = 5), 9 doses (n = 3), and 10 doses (n = 1). The most common signs of toxicosis were vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and sepsis secondary to myelosuppression. None of the dogs died of complications resulting from mitoxantrone treatment. Dogs with signs of toxicosis during the 21-day interval from administration of the first dose of mitoxantrone were 95 times (P = 0.003) more likely to develop signs of toxicosis during the 21-day interval from the second dose of mitoxantrone. Similarly, dogs that developed signs of toxicosis during the 21-day interval from the administration of the second dose were 34 times (P < 0.001) more likely to develop signs of toxicosis during the 21-day interval from the administration of the third dose. With each 1 mg/m2 increase in mitoxantrone, the odds of developing signs of toxicosis increased by 5.9 fold (P < 0.001). The performance status (modified Karnofsky performance scheme) of each dog was not adversely affected to a significant extent by mitoxantrone-induced toxicosis until the fifth dose (P = 0.0008). Cardiac toxicosis was not detected. Mitoxantrone was also administered iv to 4 clinically normal dogs, at a dosage of 5 mg/m2 of body surface area, a decrease in the neutrophil count was seen, with the nadir occurring on day 10 (mean ± sem: 1,159 ± 253 cells/μl; range, 480 to 1,680 cells/μl). Tumor-bearing dogs did not seem to have the same degree of myelosuppression (mean ± sem, 6,263 ± 1,230 cells/μl; range, 228 to 18,600 cells/μl).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association