Objective—To evaluate perioperative antimicrobial use associated with elective surgery for cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed and antimicrobial use practices were evaluated for dogs with no other problems that would affect antimicrobial use decisions.
Results—Antimicrobials were administered before or during surgery to 75 of 83 (90%) dogs. Timing of administration with respect to first incision, intraoperative administration, and duration of administration were variable. Antimicrobial administration began after surgery in 3 (3.6%) dogs. Fifty-five of 65 (85%) dogs treated before surgery received the first dose within 60 minutes of the first incision. Time from first antimicrobial administration to closure of the incision ranged from 15 to 285 minutes (mean ± SD, 141 ± 53 minutes). If a guideline of repeated administration every 2 hours after first administration until closure of the surgical site was used, 22 of 43 (51%) dogs received the required intraoperative dose, whereas 6 of 32 (19%) dogs that did not require intraoperative treatment were treated. Twenty-four (29%) dogs received antimicrobials after surgery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Certain discrepancies between antimicrobial use practices in this study and standard guidelines used in human medicine were evident.
Case Description—A 3-year-old male alpaca was evaluated because of non–weight-bearing lameness (grade 5/5) in the left hind limb.
Clinical Findings—Clinical and radiographic examination revealed a closed, comminuted, nonarticular, displaced diaphyseal fracture of the left third and fourth metatarsal bones.
Treatment and Outcome—Initial attempts at treatment via reduction of the fracture under traction and subsequent application of a cast were unsuccessful, and more stable fracture fixation was pursued. The alpaca underwent closed reduction of the fracture, which was stabilized by the application of a 3-ring circular external skeletal fixator (CESF). Improved weight bearing on the affected limb was evident soon after surgery and gradually increased; full weight bearing was evident by the seventh day after discharge from the hospital (day 20 after application of the CESF). Lameness was hardly noticeable during walking at that time. After 3 months, complete fracture healing was evident and the CESF was removed; mild outward rotation of the distal fragment and metatarsophalangeal joint was present. A Robert Jones bandage was applied to the limb, and the alpaca was kept in a stall for another 4 weeks. Eleven months after CESF application, the owners and referring veterinarian reported that the alpaca was healthy, not lame, and serving as a stallion without apparent impediment.
Clinical Relevance—Although mostly restricted to small animals, application of a CESF can be a viable alternative for management of long bone fractures in South American camelids.